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Full text of "Arbustrum Americanum : The American grove, or, An alphabetical catalogue of forest trees and shrubs, natives of the American United States, arranged according to the Linnaean system : containing, the particular distinguishing characters of each genus, with plain, simple and familiar descriptions of the manner of growth, appearance, &c. of their several species and varieties. : Also, some hints of their uses in medicine, dyes, and domestic oeconomy."

ARBUSTRUM AMERICANUM: 



THE 

AMERICAN GROVE, 

OR, AN 

ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE 

O F 

FOREST TREES and SHRUBS, 

NATIVES OF THE AMERICAN UNITED STATES, 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THE LINN.SAN SYSTEM. 

CONTAINING, 

The particular diftinguifliing CharaBers of each Genus, with 
plain, fimple and familiar Defcriptions of the Manner of Growth^ 
Appearance, isc. of their fever al Species and Varieties. 

ALSO, some hints OF THEIR USES IN 

MJEDICINE, DYES, and DOMESTIC OECONOMY, 



COMPILED FROM ACTUAL KNOWLEDGE AND OBSERVATION, AND 
THE ASSISTANCE OF BOTANICAL AUTHORS, j 

By HUMPHRY MARSHALL. 



FHILADELTHIA: 

PRINTED BY JOSEPH CRUKSHANK, 11^ MARKET-STREET, BETWEEN 
SECOND AND THIRD-STREETS. 
M DCC X.XXXV. 



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, Esquire, 

PRESIDENT, 



>• Vice-TrefidentSy 



JOHN EWING, D. D. 
WILLIAM WHITE, D. D. and 
SAMUEL VAUGHAN, Efquire,J 

AND 

TO THE OTHER MEMBERS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, 

THIS 

ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

FOREST TREES and SHRUBS, 
NATIVES of the AMERICAN UNITED STATES, 
IS respec;tfully dedicated 

By the Author. 



INTRODUCTION. 



HEN we take a furvey of Mankind 
in general, and of the feveral requi- 
fites by which life is rendered comfortable 
and defirable, the produ6lions of the Vege- 
table Kingdom are amongft the foremoft ; as 
affording the principal neceffaries, conveni- 
encies, and luxuries of life. 

It is in this view, that the Science of Botany, 
or that branch of natural Hiftory which 
teaches the right knowledge of Vegetables, 
and their application to the moft beneficial 
ufes, is an objed: which not only merits the 
attention and encouragement of every patriotic 
and liberal mind, but undoubtedly deferves a 
place amongfl the firft of ufeful purfuits. 
That it is an obje6l highly deferving the at- 
tention of Mankind in general, cannot be 
denied; bvit in a particular manner of the 
inhabitants of this Commonwealth, the author 
wiflies to make appear more obvious. 

Thofe who are converfant in trade well know 
the continual enormous expence we are at in 
purchafing foreign Teas, Drugs, Dye-flufTs, 
&c. The diminution of this, ought to be the 
care and concern of every friend to his Coun- 
try's welfare. And we prefume it will appear 
evident, that the moft eligible and obvious 

means 




( vi ) 

means of obtaining this defirable objed, will 
be by a proper attention and application to 
Horticulture and Botany. In this view, the 
following confiderations more particularly 
prefent themfelves. 

I. The introduBion and cultivation of foreign 
life fill and valuable plants. Our extent of ter- 
ritory, our diverllty of Climate, of Soil, and 
of Stuation, leaves not a doubt but that we 
might introduce and cultivate to advantage, 
many of the fame articles, whofe importation 
at this time^ is to us, a confiderable expence. 
The Thea viridis Sc hohea^ the true green and 
bohea Tea plant, formerly accounted different 
fpecies, but now known to be the fame, and 
one of the greateft drainers of our wealth; 
may be procured either from its native place 
of growth, or from Europe where it has be- 
come pretty common ; and we have every rea- 
Ibn to believe, from its being the fpontaneous 
produce of the fame parallel of latitude, and 
from other confiderations refpedling its na- 
tural hiftory, that it might thrive well in our 
Southern States. In this fame viev/ the Vine, 
the Almond Tree, Fig Tree, Liquorice, Ivlad- 
der and Rhubarb, defervedly require our atten- 
tion. Many other ^ foreign ufeful plants 
might be enumerated, and the advantages 
that may be derived to this Commonwealth 
from their introduftion, encreafe and culture, 
muft appear fufficiently obvious. 

^ See Tranfaaicns of the American Philofophical Society, 
Vol, I. Page 155. 



( vii ) 



IL The dif covering the qualities and ufes of our 
oivn native Vegetable produ^ions^ and applying 
them to the moft ufeful purpofes. Our eittent of 
luxuriant unfexplored territory, is an objedl 
which here in a particular manner occurs re- 
plete with promifing advantages. Our being 
able to difcover a plant of equal general ufage 
with the Potatoe^ Tobacco^ or Ginfeng ; or good 
fubftitutes for Tea^ Coffee and Peruvian Bark; 
would be advantages furpaffing all adequate 
eftimation. 

It is true, we may gain by tedious experi- 
ence, or ftumble by chance upon many ufeful 
difcoveries refpedling the ufes and medicinal 
virtues of plants, but it is from our obferva- 
tions and refearches founded upon, and di- 
redled by, 3. knowledge of Botany^ that we can 
alone hope for certain fuccefs. From the 
writings of the celebrated Linnaeus this gene- 
ral rule is fufEciently eftablifhed ; that plants 
of the fame habit and appearance, and thofe 
which agree in the difpofition of their flowers 
and fruit, have likewife firailar virtues and 
properties* From this obfervation we deduce 
an obvious inference ; that the more general 
knowledge we obtain of the charadlers and 
appearance of plants, the more likely we fhall 
be alfo to encreafe ovir knowledge of their vir- 
tues, qualities and ufes. 

This fubje6l has been much urged and long 
dwelt upon from a convidlion of its impor- 
tance and promifing advantages : the author, 
influenced by thefe confiderations, and from 

a belief 



( viii ) 

k belief that it might contribute in feme de- 
gree to render a knowledge of this fubjedl 
more familiar and eafy, has been induced to 
draw up this Alphabetical Catalogue of the 
Foreft Trees and Shrubs, natives of the Ame- 
rican United States, as mentioned by the beft 
authors, or fince difcovered by ingenious tra- 
vellers. In this Catalogue are contained their 
Linnaean Generic and trivial names, (or new 
formed ones where thefe have been wanting) 
together with their moft common and approv- 
ed Englifh ones ; the particular diftinguiftiing 
characters of each Genus ; a plain and fami- 
liar defcription of the appearance, manner of 
growth, 8cc, of their feveral Ipecies and va- 
rieties ; and alfo, fome hints of their native 
foil and fituation, ufes in Medicine, as Dyes 
and in domeftic oeconomy. 

As terms peculiar to the fcience frequently 
and unavoidably occur, it was judged necef- 
fary, in order to render the work more ufeful 
and complete, to prefix a general explanation 
of the Linnaean fyftem of arrangement, as. 
alfo of the ufeful and unavoidable fcientific 
terms; for this and other purpofes the author 
has availed himfelf from the beft writers, of 
what has been judged moft applicable and 
conducive to his defign. The whole forming 
an ufefal Vademecum Botanicum^ or Botanical 
Companion. 

In this my Countrymen are prefented at one 
view with a concife defcription of their own 
native Foreft Trees and Shrubs, as far as hi- 
therto difcovered. And thofe w^hofe fancy 

may 



( ix ) 

may lead to this delightful fcience, may by a 
little application^ from hence be enabled fcien- 
tifically to examine and arrange, not only thofe 
of the flirubby, but the feveral and various 
fpecies of the herbaceous clafs. The foreigner^ 
curious in American collections, will be here- 
by better enabled to make a feledion fuitable 
to his own particular fancy. If he wifhes to 
cultivate timber for oeconomical purpofes, he 
is here informed ot our valuable Foreft Trees: 
if for adorning his plantation or garden of 
our different ornamental flowering Ihrubs. 

The author would have been happy, could 
he have given alfo a defcriptive Catalogue of 
our native herbaceous plants. At prefent, 
circumftances oblige him to confine himfelf 
to Foreft Trees and Shrubs ; however he has 
fuch a work in contemplation fhould this • 
meet with the encouragement of the public. 

He is well aware that many improvements 
might have been made, with regard to the 
form and manner of defcription, as well as 
by the addition of Synonyms, Notes of re- 
ference, Sec. but, upon reflecfliiig that the ge- 
nerality of his Readers would have been more 
embarralTed and confiifed than profited there- 
by, he was determined to ufe the moft plain 
and familiar method and language, in order 
to render the work as generally ufeful as pofTi- 
ble; this being the chief end and defign of the 
undertaking. 



b 



( ^ ) 



A View of the "Ifwenty-four Clajfes of the Sexual 
System of Linn^us, with their Names and Cha- 
racers ; alfo the Number and Explanation of Orders 
contained in each. 



Numher 
of the 
Clajfes. 



Their Names and 
CharaBers. 



Number 
of Orders 
in each. 



MONANDRIA. 
One fertile ftamen, 
having the Antherx 

1. DIANDRIA 

Two fruitful Stamina or 
male parts. 

3. TRIANDRIA. 
Three ditto. 



4' ^ 



TETRANDRIA. 1 
Four ditto, all of equal | 
length, by which it is ^3 
diftinguilhed from the I (.3* 
fourteenth clafs. J 



rx, J 

Hi 



Their Namcs^ exprcffive of ^ 
the Number of Female | 
Farts or Styles. ^ 



Monogynia, 
JDigynia, 



PENTANDRIA. 
Five ditto. 



HEXANDRIA. 
Six ditto, all of equal 
length, by which this 
is diflinguilhed from 
tlie fixteenth clafs. 

HEPTANDRIA. 
Seven ditto. 



8. OCTANDRIA. 
Eis-ht ditto. 



9. ENNEANDRIA. 
Ki.'ic ditto. 



Monogynia, 
Digynia, 
Trigynia, 

Monogynia, 
Digynia, 
Trigynia, 

Monogynia, 
Digynia, - 
Tetragynia, 

. Monogynia, 
. Digynia, 
. Triginia, 
. Tetragynia, 
. Pentagynia, 
. Polygynia, 

Monogynia, 

Digynia, 

Trigynia, 

Tetragynia, 

Polygynia, 

. Monogynia, 

Digynia, 
. Tetragynia, 
. Heptagynia, 

, Monogynia, 

. Trigynia, 
. Tetragynia, 

. Monogynia, 
. Trigynia, 
. Hexagynia, 



I 

- z 
I 

- z 

- 3 

- I 
z 

- 3 
I 

- z 

' 4 

I 

- z 

3 

- 4 

- S 

many 

I 

- z 
5 
4 

many 

r 
z 

- 4 
7 
I 
« 

- 3 
4 
r 
z 

- 6 



10. DECAN- 



( ) 



Number 
of the 
ChJ'es. 



Their Names and 
CharaBers, 



10, DECANDRIA. 
Ten ditto. 



II. DODECANDRIA. - 
From eleven to nineteen j 
Stamina^ inclufive. 



Number Their Namely exprejfive of ^ 
of Orders the Number of Female | 

in each. Parts or StjitJes, ^ 

f I. Monogynia, - - i 

1 2. Digynia, - - - a 

f 5 ^ 3- Trigynia, - - 3 

1 4. Pentagynia, - 5 

Decagynia, - - 10 

ri. Monogynia, - - i 

j 2. Digynia, - - - ^ 

' J 3. Trigynia - - 3 

j 4. Pentagynia, - 5 

Odagynia, - - 8 

Dodecagynia, - iz 



JZ. ICOSANDRIA. 1 
Twenty ftamina and up- j 
wards (fometimes few- 1 
er) affixed to the inner | 
lide of the Corolla or | 
calyx and not to the ^ 5 
receptacle; the corol- 
la is fattened to the in- 
ner fide of the calyx, 
which is concave and 
of one leaf. 

13. POLYANDRIA. ' 
From fifteen to one thou- 
fand ftamina, which 
are fattened to the 
receptacle. It differs ^ 7 
from the Icofandria in 
the calyx and the in- 
fertion of the Stamina 
and Corolla, 



14. DIDYNAMIA. ') 
Four Stamina: the two j 
next to one another 
fhorter than the other j 
two ; one ttyle and an • 
uneven Corolla, J 



n- 
14. 

15- 



1 3: 
it 

n: 

L7- 



Monogynia, 

Digynia, 

Trigynia, 

Pentagynia, 

Polygynia, 



Monogynia, 

Digynia, 

Trigynia,^ 

Tetragynia, 

Pentagynia, 

Hexagynia, 

Polygynia, 



r 

- « 

3 
5 

many 



I 
z 

- 3 
4 

• \ 

many 



15. TETRADYNAMIA. 1 

Six Stamina^ tapering and ' 
ered: the two oppofite 
as long as the calyx, 
the other four a little 1 
longer ; four even pe- ; 
tals. J 



Their Names exprejftve of the 
difpofition of their Seeds* 



'I. Gymnofpermia— Seeds 
I naked in the calyx. 

I 2. Angiofpermia Seeds 

^ covered in a feed-vefTel. 



^i. Siliculofa—Seeds in fmall 
\ fhort pods. 

)z, Siliquofa— Seeds in long 
^ flcfnder pods. 



16. MONA^ 



( xli ) 



^slumber Their Names and Number Their Names chiefly exprtf" 5gJ 
of the CharaBers. of Orders five of the Number of | 

ClaJJes* in each, Male Parts or Stamina, 1* 



1^5 



16. MONADELPHIA. ' 
A Perianthium^ perma- 
nent, often double ; 
five petals. The fila- 
inents all joine/i in one 
parcel below, but not 
above ; the external 
Ihorteft. 

17. DIADELPHIA. 
The filaments all joined 

below in two parcels, 
one fimple the other 
nine-cleft, A perian- 
thium of one leaf, bell- 
Ihaped and falling-off. j 
The Corolla always but- 
ter-fiy-ihaped and un- | 
even. J 

1 8. POLYADELPHIA. *) 
The filaments united be- C 

low into three or more ( ^ 
diftind parcels. J 



19. SYNGENESIA. 

The Stamina joined by 
their Anthem (rarely by 
tjieir filaments) in form 
of a cylinder. 





Pentandria, 


5 


2. 


Decandria, - 
Endecandria, «• 


- 19 


' 3. 


II 


4. 


Dodecandria, 


- IZ 


L5- 


Polyandria, - 


- many 



Hexandria, 
Odtandria, 
Decandria, 



Pentandria, 
Icofandria, 
Polyandria, 



6 

10 



many 



. Polygamia ^qualis— - 
Equal Polygamy. The flo- 
rets all hermaphrodite. 

• Polygamia Superflua— - 
Superfluous Polygamy. The 
florets in the center herma- 
phrodite, thofe in the cir- 
cumference female. 

. Polygamia Fruflanea— - 
InefFedual Polygamy. The 
florets in the center herma- 
phrodite, thofe in the cir- 
cumference barren. 

, Polygamia Neceflaria-— 
NecelTary Polygamy. The 
hermaphrodite florets in the 
center barren, but the fe- 
male in the circumference 
fruitful. 

. Polygamia Scgregata-— 
Separate Polygamy. The 
florets feparated by partial 
flower-cups within a com- 
mon calyx. 

. Monogamia, Single mar- 
riages, containing fimple 
flowers whofe Antherae are 
united. 



( xiii ) 



Number Their Names and Number Their Names chlejiy expref- 
of the CharaBers, of Orders five of the Number of 

Clqffes* in each, Male Parts er Stamina, 



10. GYNANDRIA. 

The Stamina or male parts 
attached to, and grow- 
ing upon the female or 
Pijiillum. 



21. MONOECIA. 
Male and female flowers ( 
in difl:inft cups on the( 
lame plant. 



II 



^z. DIOECIA. 

Male and female flowers ( 
on difl^erent plants ofi 
the fame Species. ^ 



14 



1. Diandria, 

2. Triandria, 

3. Tetrandria, 
Pentandria, 
Hexandria, 
Decandria, 
Polyandria^ 

Monandrja, 
Diandria, 
Triandria, 
Tetrandria, 
Pentandria, 
Hexandria, 
Heptandria, 
8. Polyandria, 
9 



4' 

I. 
2. 
3. 
4- 
5- 
6. 

7' 



2. 

- 3 
4 

- 5 
6 
10 
many 
I 

- z 
3 
4 

- 5 
6 

- 7 

many 



a3. POLYGAMIA. 
Male, female and her- 
maphrodite flowers di- 
ftind in the fame Spe- 
cies, and fometimes 
on the fame plant. 



24. CRYPTOGAMIA. 
The fructification either 
wholly efcapes our no- 
tice, or the flowers are 
hid within the fruit. 



J 



Monadelphia, Filaments 
united. 

10. Syngenefla, Antherae united. 

11. Gynandria, Stamina grow- 

ing out of the piftillum. 

1. Monandria. - i 

2. Diandria, - - 2- 

3. Triandria, - 3 

4. Tetrandria, 4 

5. Pentandria, - - 5 

6. Hexandria, - 6 

7. Odandria, * - 7 

8. Enneandria, - 8 

9. Decandria, - - 10 

10. Dodecandria, - 12 

11. Polyandria, - many 

12. Monadelphia, Filaments 

united. 

13. Dia(Jelphia, Antheraeunited. 

14. Syngenefia, Stamina grow- 

ing out of the piftillum. 

1. Monoecia, one houfe, or male 

and female flowers on the 
fame plant. 

2. Dioecia, two houfes, or male 

and female flowers on fe- 
parate plants. 

3. Trioecia, three houfes, or 

male, female and herma- 
phrodite, growing on three 
diftind plants of the fame 
Genus. 

■I. Filices. Ferns. 

2. Mufci. Mofles. 

3. Algae. Fucus, orSea-wscd. 

4. Fungi, Muftiroons. 



( xiv ) 



Note, PalmcB, the Palms have, in late works, been added by 
way of appendix, and conftitiites the 25th clafsj but as tbefe 
are qot natives of thefe States, and their fruflification but 
imperfedlly known, they are omitted. 

From the preceding View it appears, that the 
Names and Charafters of the Twenty-four Claffes, 
are each founded on either the Number^ Infertion^ 
Equality^ Connedion^ Situation^ or Abfence of the 
Stamina or Male Sexual Organs. 

On Number only^ are founded the firft eleven Claffes^ 
from Monandria to Dodecandria. 



On Connedion^ Monadelphia, Diadelphia, Polyadel- 
phia, and Syngenefia. 

On Inferiion only^ Gynandria. 

On Situation^ Monoecia, Dioecia and Polygamia. 



On Number and 
Inferiion^ 



5 



Icofandria and Polyandria. 




Didynamia and Tetradynamia. 



On Abfence^ Cryptogamia. 



( XV ) 



An Explanation of the different parts of fruclif cation. 

FRUCTIFICATION is a ttmporaiy part of vegetables, 
appointed for the purpofe of generation, terminating 
the old vegetable and beginning the new. The parts of fruc- 
tification are the feven following, viz. 

1. The Calyx, flower- cup, or empalement. 

2. The Corolla, petals, or painted leaves of the flower. 

3. The Stamina, threads, or chives. 

4. The Pijlihm^ or pointal. 

5. The Fericarpiim, or Seed-vefTel. 

6. The Seeds. 

7. The Receptacle, or bafe on which all the other parts of the 
fru6lification are conneded. 

I. The calyx (which is the termination of the outer bark of 
the plant, prefenting itfelf in the fruftification, in this 
form) comprehends the feven following fpecies, viz. the 
perianthium, the involucrum, the amentum, the fpadix, the glu- 
ma, the calyptra, and volva, of each of which in their order. 

1. The perianthium, the flower-cup or empalement properly 
fo called, is the moft common fpecies of calyx, and fltuated 
clofe to the fruflification. If it enclofes the Jlamina and 
germen, it is called the perianthium of the fruftincation. If 
it enclofes the Stamina andnot the^erm^?i, it is ihQ perianthium 
of the flower. If it includes the germem, and not the fla- 
mina, it is the perianthium of the fruit. 

2. The involucrum or cover is fituated at the bottom of an um- 
bel, at fomediftance from the flower. It is called an univer- 
fal involucrum or cover, if it is fituated at the bottom of an 
univerfal umbel; and a partial involucrum or cover, if at thz 
foot of a partial umbel. 

3. The amentum or katkin is that fort of calyx, which confifl:s of 
a great number of chaffy fcales proceeding from a common 
receptacle or (lender thread, as in hazel, alder, &c. 

4. 'Ihe Jpatha or Iheath is a fort of calyx which burlis length- 
ways, and puts forth a flalk fupporting the flowers; as in 
narcijjus, fnow-drop, arwn, indian turnep &c. 

5. The gluma or chaffy hulk, is that fort ot calyx peculiar to 
graflfes, compofed of thin fcales or valves, w^hich are often 
terminated by an arijia, a beard, or awn. 

5.. The calyptra a veil or hood, is a fort of calyx peculiar to 

moflTe?, 



( xvi ) 



moffes, placed over their antUrce, and refembling a monk's 

cowl, or rather an extinguilTier. 
7. The volva is a fort of calyx peculiar to the fungi or mufli- 

room tribe, involving or inclofing their fruftification. It is 

membranaceous and torn quite round. 
IL The corolla, literally a wreath or garland, (ferving together 

with the calyx as covers to the parts they inclofe) is the 

termination of the inner bark of the plant prefenting itfelf 

in this form, and conlifls of the petalum and ne^arium, 

1. The petalum or petal is the corrollaceous covering of the 
flower. If the flower is monopetalous, f. conllfts of 
one petal, the lower hollow part of fuch a corolla is called 
tubus, the tube, and the upper part which fpreads wider is 
called limbus, the limb or border. And from its different 
figure it is called either, 

Bell'PMped, without any tube below, 

Funnel- jh aped or conical, with a tube. 

Saucer oy falver-Jbaped^ with a tube, 

IVheel fiaped, without any tube below; or 

Gaping, lipped or maflced. 
If the corrolla be polypetalous, i, e, confifts of many petals, 

the lower part of each petal is called, the unguis, or claw. 
And the upper part which is wider, is called the lamina, or 

thin plate. 
Again this upper part or lamina^ is either 
Cro'J-jloaped, of four equal fpreading petals; or 
Butter-Jlj-fiaped, irregular and of four petals ; the upper one 

of which is called the Jlandard; the two fide ones wings; 

and the under one the keel. 

2. ThQneBarkm is that part of the corolla which contains 
the honey; having a wonderful variety both as to fKapeand 
fituation, and is fometimes united with the petals, and fome- 
times feparate from them. 

Ill, The ftamina are thofe parts of a flower appropriated to 
the preparation of the pollen, or fecundating duft, and con- 
fid of thQ filatnentum, the anthera, and the pollen, 

1. ThQ filamentim, the filament or thread ferves to elevate the 
anthers, and connect it to the flower. 

2. The anthera, or fummit of the Jlamen, Is that part which 
contains the pollen or fecundating dufi, and difcharges it 
when ripe. 

3. The pollen, or impregnating duft, is that fine powder con- 
tained within the antherce, or tops of the fiamina, and dif- 
perfed when ripe, upon the female organ, for impregnating 
the fame. 

IV. The 



( xvii ) 



IV. The pijlillum, pointal, or female organ, adheres to the 
fruit, and is that part appropriated for the reception of the 
polleuy fpoken of above. It confifts of the germen^ the JlyluSy 
and the Jligma. 

1. ThQ germen, or feed-bud, is the bafe or lower part of the 
pijlilhm^ containing the rudiments of the unripe fruit, or 
feed, in the flowering ftate of the plant, 

2. The Jlylusj or ftyle, is that part of the pijlilkim which ftands 
upon the germen, and elevates the Jligma or fummit. 

3. The Jligma, the fummit, or top of the ftyle, is that part 
which receives the fertilizing duft of the antherce, and tranf- 
mits its effluvia, through the ftyle into the middle of the 
germen, or feed- bud. 

V. The pericarpium, or feed vefTel, is that part which contains 
the feeds, and difcharges them when ripe. It comprehends 
the eight following fpecies, viz. the capfiila, the filiqua^ 
the legimen, the conceptaciilim or folliculns, the drupa, the 
pomim, the bacca^ and the ftrobilus; of each of which in 
their order. 

1. The capjuhj a capfule or little cafket, is a dry hollow feed- 
velTel, that fplits or opens in fome determinate manner. 
Capfules, when opened or fplit, are divided outwardly into 
one or more pieces, called valvulce, or valves, the parts 
which divide the capfules internally into cells are called 
dijjepimenta, or partitions. And the fubftances which con- 
ned the partitions to the feeds, are called columellce, or little- 
pillars. The empty fpaces for containing the feeds, are 
called loculamenta, or cells. 

2. ThQjiliqua, or pod is a feed- vefTel with two valveSj having 
the feeds fixed along the joining or edge of both valves. 

3. The legumen^ or cod, is a feed-velTel with two valves, having 
the feeds lixed along the edge of one of the valves only. 

4. ThQ conceptacidum, a receiver; or folliculus^ a little bag, is 
a feed-veffel with one valve, fplitting length-ways from top 
to bottom, and has no feam for faftening the feeds with- 
in it. 

5. The drupa, drupe, or ftcne fruit, is a pulpy feed-veflel, 
which has no valve, or external opening, and contains with- 
in it a (lone or nut. 

6. The pomum, or apple, is a pulpy feed-velTel, which has 
no valve or external opening, and contains within it a 
capfule. 

7. The bacca, or berry, is a pulpy feed veflel, which has no 
valve, and contains feeds which are naked, or have no 
other covering than the pulp. 

c S. The 



( xviii ) 



B. The Jlrohilus^ or cone, is a feed-veflel compofed of woody 
fcales, laid over one another like tiles; it opens only at 
top, the fcales being fixed below to the center of the cone. 

VI. Semen, the feed, is a deciduous part of the plant, con- 
taining the rudiments of a new vegetable, and fertilized by 
the fprinkling of the male duft. Under this head are com- 
prehended the feed properly fo called, the nut and propago. 

The 7mt is a feed covered with a hard bony fkin. 

Propago^ the feed of the moffes, which has no tunic or 
covering. 

VIL The receptaculum, or receptacle, the feventh and lafl: 
part of thefruftification on which the other fix are conneded, 
comprehends the receptaculim proprium^ the receptaculum com- 
mune, and the fpadix, 

1. The receptaculim pYopvium, or proper receptacle, which be- 
longs to the parts of a fingle frudlification only. It is called 
the receptacle either of the fruBification, when it is com- 
mon to both flower and fruit; of ihQ flower, when the 
parts of the flower only are faftened to it without the ger- 
men; of the fruit when it is a bafefor the fruit, and at a di- 
llance from the receptacle of the flower; or of the feeds, 
when it is a bafe to which the feeds are fixed within the 
pericarpium or feed-veflTel. 

2. The receptaculum commune^ or common receptacle, Is that 
which connects feveral florets together; as in compound 
flowers; and is either paleaceum chaff^y, f. e, with thin 
membranaceous chaffy plates rifing between the florets, or 
nudum naked, without chaify plates. 

3. The fpadix is the receptacle of the palms, and is always 
branched. It is alfo ufed to fignify the flower flalk of every 
plant, which was originally contained within a fpatha or 
iheath; but in this lafl: cafe it is often Ample. 

Explanation of the Modes oj Flowering. 

The peduncle or foot-fl:alk of the flower is a partial trunk, bear- 
ing the fruftification only, but not the leaves. 

When branched or divided, each of the divifions is called 
pedicellus, or a little flower-ftalk. 

Flower-ftalks are diftinguiflied from the place of the plant 
where they grow, into, 

1. The radical flower-fl:alk, when they proceed immediately 
from the root. 

2. The cfl«/mff flower-ftalk, which proceeds from the ftem. 

3. The 



( xix ) 

3. The branch peduncle, which proceeds from the branches, 

4. The axillary/, or bofom flower-ftalk, which comes out be- 
tween the leaf and ftem, or between the branch and ftem. 

5. The terminal flower-ftalk, which comes from the extremity 
of the branch or ftem. 

6. The folitarj peduncle, when there is only one in the fame 
place. 

7. The /catt^f^fi? peduncles, when a great many grow together 
without any order. 

Flower-ftalks are alfo diftinguiflied from the different modes 
in which flowers are borne and conne6led on them, into the 
uniflorous, bifiorous, triflorouSy or multiflorous peduncle, that is, 
which bear one, two, three, or many flowers. 

Flowers are alfo coUefted or borne in the ten following modes. 

1. The fajciculusy a bunch or bundle, when peduncles are 
erefl, parallel, placed clofe to one another, and all of the 
fame height, as in fweet-william, 

2. The capitulum, a little head, where many flowers are collefl- 
ed into a head, at the extremity of a peduncle, as in globe 
amaranthus, 

3. ThQjpike^ where the flowers fit clofe without foot-flalks, 
and are placed along a common flower-ftalk. A fpike is 
called fecunda^ Angle ranked, when all the flowers are 
turned to one fide; ox diflicha, double ranked, when the flow- 
ers look to both fides, or ftand two ways. 

4. The corpnbuT, where the leflTer flower-ftalks of unequal lengths 
are produced along the common peduncle on all fides, and 
rife to the fame height, fo as to form a flat or even furface 
at top, as in fpiraa opulifolia, 

5. The pajiicle where the fru6lifications are difperfed upon 
foot-fi:alks varioully fubdivided, as in oats, &c. a panicle 
is faid to be diffufe when the partial foot-ftalks diverge, 
and the fruftifications hang loofe; or Jlraight and narrow; 
when the foot-fl:alks approach near to one another. 

.6. The thyrjus is a panicle contracted into an oval or egg- 
IKaped-form, fomewhat refembling the cone of a pine; as 
in lilacy horfe chefnut, &c. 
7. The racemus or clufler, confifis of a common peduncle, 
having fhort lateral branches, all nearly of equal length 
proceeding from it ; as in the vine, currants &c. It is called 
racemusfecundusy or a one ranked clufter when all the foot-fialks 
incline to one fide; as in the forrel-tree and mofi: of our 
andromedas. 



I. The 



( X. ) 

8. The veHiciiluSy or whorl, where the flowers are produced! 
in rings at each joint of the ftem, with very Ihort foot- 
ftalks; as in mint, horehound^ &c. 

9. The umbella or umbel, where a number of fmali flower- 
ftalks rife from the fame center to an equal height and form 
an even furface at top. It is called a fimple umbel^ when 
the fiower-ftalks are fimple or undivided; and a compound 
umhdy or fometimes an univerjal umbel, when all the foot- 
ftalks are fubdivided into fmaller umbels, commonly called 
■poA'tial umbels 

10. ThQ cyma, or irregular umbel, where the foot-ftalks rife 
from a common center, and to an equal height, as in the 
umbel ; but the fecondary or partial foot-flalks are irregularly 
difperfed, without order as in elder, viburnim &c. 



S5* The Reader is requefted to obferve that the names of the Species, 
under which the words, Bartram's Catalogue immediately occur, 
are not found in Linnceus's Species Plantarum, but are taken from 
a Sheet Catalogue publifloed by John and William Bartram, Botanifts 
in Kingfejfing ; contaiiiing the names of Forejl Treer and Shu^s, 
growing in^ or near their Garden. 



A CAT- 




A 



CATALOGUE 

O V 



TREES AND SHRUBS, 



ACER. 

THE MAPLE TREfi. 

Clafs 23, Order i. Polyandria Monoecla, 

IT hath Hermaphrodite and Male flowers upon the fame 
tree. 

In the Hermaphrodite^ 
ThQ Empalement is of one leaf, five cleft, acute, coloured, plain 

and entire at the bafe, and permanent. 
The Corolla confifls of five petals, which are ovate, broader 

outward, obtufe, fcarce larger than the calyx, and fpreading. 
The Filaments are eight, awl-ihaped and iliort. The AnthertJd 

fimple. 

The Germen is comprelTed and funk in the Receptacle, which is 
large, convex and perforated. The Stjle is thread-form, en- 
creafing in length. The Stigmas two, iliarp-pointec^, llender, 
and reflexed. 

The Seed-veJJels are two capfules joined at the bafe, roundifh, 
comprelTed, and each terminating in a large membranaceous 
wing. 

The Seeds are folitary and roundifli. 

The Male are the fame in all parts except wanting the germen 
and ftyle. 

Ol)[, The ACh-kaved Maple has mala and fenial<i 'fidWers on 
feparate trees, 

A The 



( 2 ) 



The Species with us are^ 

1 . Acer pennfylvanicum Pennfylvanian 

Divarf Aiotintaift Maple. 

This grows naturally upon the mountains in the 
back parts of Pennfylvania. The ftems are flender, 
rifing to the height of fix or eight feet, and fending 
off feveral oppolite branches. The leaves are three- 
pointed, pretty much fawed on their edges, and 
placed oppofite upon pretty long footftalks. The 
flowers terminate the ftalks in a pretty long ereft 
racemusox bunch; they are fmall, of an herbaceous 
colour, and in part fucceeded by fmall conjoined 
winged feeds. 

2. Acer glaucum. The Siher-leaved Maple. 

This tree grows frequently to the height of fifty 
or fixty feet, with many fpreading branches. The 
leaves are five-lobed, fomewhat toothed, or deeply 
and irregularly fawed on their edges : they are of 
a lucid green on the upper fide and a bright filver co- 
lour on their under. The flowers are produced in. 
little umbels at the foot of the leaves; they are of a 
deep red colour, and are fucceeded by large winged 
feeds, which fall off early in the fummer. This is 
perhaps the Acer rubrum of Linnaeus. 

3. Acer Negvindo. The AJh-leaved Maple. 

This tree is dioecious, or having male and female 
flowers upon different trees; it is but of middling 
growth, rifing perhaps to the height of twenty or 
thirty feet. The leaves fomething refemble thofe of 
the Afhj but are generally trifoliate or quinquefoliate, 
or confift:ing of three or five lobes; which are oval, 
fomewhat pointed, and a little notched towards their 
extremities. The flowers of the male are produced 

upon 



( 3 ) 



upon pendulous bundles of very long fine threads or 
footftalks, each having a fmall flower-cup at its ex- 
tremity, containing five or more (lamina. The female 
produces flowers at the extremity of the fmall branch- 
es, in long loofe bunches ; they have long footftalks, 
with a fmall deciduous empalement ; containing a 
compre(red germen, with fcarce any ftyle, but two 
reflexed ftigmas. 

4. Acer canadenfe. American jlriped Maple. 

This is but of middling growth. The bark, efpecially 
of the young (hoots, is beautifully variegated or (trip- 
ed. The leaves are divided into three very (liarp 
pointed lobes, and very finely fawed on their edges. 
The flowers are produced in folitary bunches, with 
fhortifli footftalks ; having pretty large petals and 
empalements, containing generally eight ftamina or 
filaments; and in hermaphrodite flowers two reflexed 
ftigmas. The flowers and feeds are of a greenifh 
yellow colour. 

5. Acer rubrum. The Scarlet flowering 

Maple, 

This grows to a pretty large fize in a rich foil. The 
leaves are three and fometimes nearly five lohed, and 
fawed on their edges. The flowers are produced in 
little umbels clofely furrounding the fmall branches, 
and are of a fcarlet colour. The footftalks of the 
hermaphrodite flowers, (hooc out to a confiderable 
length; they are of a fcarlet colour, each fuftaining 
two joined winged feeds, fomewhat of the fame co- 
lour. There is a variety of this with yellowilh flow- 
ers and feeds, which is, I believe, the moft common 
|«:ind in Pennfylvania. 



6. Acer 



( 4 ) 



6. Acer faccharum. The Sugar Maple. 

This grows to a large tree of two feet or more in 
diameter, and fifty or fixty feet high. The leaves 
fomethiug refemble the Silver-leaved Maple, but are 
not fo large, nor deeply lobcd; or of fo fine a filver 
colour, it flowers in manner of the Scarlet Maple, 
but the flowers are of an herbaceous colour; and 
produces large joined winged feeds. The back in- 
habitants make a pretty good fugar, and in confider- 
abie quantity, of the fap of this and the Silver-leaved 
Maple; and though thcfe have generally been pre- 
ferred, yet all our Maples yield a fap which affords a 
pretty good fugar. 

^ S C U L U S. 

THE HORSE-CHESNUT.TR.ee. 
Clafs 7, Order i. Heptandria Monogynia, 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, tiibulouSj fmall and five- 
toothed. 

The Corolla confifts of five petals, roundifli, waved with a plait- 
ed margin, plane, fpreading, unequally coloured, and infert- 
ed by narrow claws into the calyx. 

The Filaments are feven (fometinies eight) awl-fhaped, the 
length of the corolla, and declined. The Antherce riling. 

The Germen is roundilTi, ending in an awl iTi aped Style. The 
Stigma lharp pointed. 

The Seed-veJ[el a capfule, coriaceous, roundiili, three-cell'd and 
three valv'd. 

The Seeds or nuts two, fomewhat globofe, often but one ar- 
riving to perfe6lion. 

I. iEscuLUs odlandra. New river Horje 
Che/nut. 

This often becomes a tree of pretty large fize. 
The branches are fniooth and of a greyifli colour. 
The Waves are pahnated, or compofed of five pretty 

large 



( 5 ) 



large lobe^ Joined at their bafe, having a pretty long 
common footftalk: they arefomewhat wedge fliape, 
or narrower towards the bafe than the point, veined 
with oblique parallel veins, and fawed on their edges. 
The flowers are produced in a loofe thyrfusy at the ex- 
tremity oi the branches, of a pale yellowifli colour; 
and are iucceeded by fruit near the fize of the eaftern 
Horfe-Chefnut. 

2» .SlsGULUS Pavia. Scarlet Jlozvering Horjc- 
Chejnut. . 

This is but of humble growth, feldom rifing to 
more than ten or twelve feet high; fending out feve- 
ral bran\ches, with leaves and flowers much like the 
former, except the flowers being of a bright red 
colour : they fliand upon fhort naked footftalks, 
branching from the common ftem, generally five or 
fix together in each thyrfus. They are tubulous at 
bottom but fpread open at top, where the petals are 
irregular in fize and length, having fomething the 
appearance of a lip flower; they have feven or eight 
flamina the length of the petals. When the flower 
fades the Germen fwells to a pear lhaped fruit, with 
a thick ruflet coloured covering, containing fome- 
times one or two nuts. 

V 

A M O R P H A. 

BASTARD-INDIGO. 
Clafs 17. Order 3. Diadelphia Decandria. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, tubulous, cylindrical and 
top-lhaped: at the mouth ereft, five-toothed, and^ob- 
tufe: the two fuperior teeth largeft; permanent. 
The Corolla is a fingle petal, inverfe egg-iliape, concave, fcarce 
larger than the calyx, ered, inferred in the calyx between 
the two largeft upper teeth, and placed on the upper fide. 

The 



( 6 ) 



The Filaments are ten, very flightly joined at the bafe, ereft, 
unequal in length, and longer than the corolla. The Anthem 
are fimple. 

The Germen is roundifh. The Style awl-lliaped and the length 
of the Stamina, The Stigma is fimple. 

The Seed-veJJel a Legumen or Pod, moon-lliaped, reflexed, 
larger than the calyx, compreffed, the top moft reflexed, of 
one cell, and tubercled. 

The Seeds are two, of an oblong kidney form. 

OhJ. This is fingularly diftinguilhable from all the Papilionace- 
ous tribe, in having only the vexillum or ftandard, and want- 
ing the wings and keel. 

T^here appears to be but one Species of this Genus^ viz. 

Amorpha fruticofa. Shrubby Bajlard Indigo. 

This grows naturally in Carolina, where it rifes 
with many irregular ftems, to the height of ten or 
twelve feet, with very long winged leaves, in fliape 
like thofe of the common Acacia. At the extremity 
of the fame year's (hoots, the flowers are produced 
in long {lender fpikes, which are very fmall and of 
a deep purple colour. The flowers are fucceeded 
by moon-fhaped, reflexed, comprelTed pods, each 
containing two kidney-fliaped feeds, 

ANDROMEDA, 

ANDROMEDA. 
Clafs 10. Order i. Decandria Monogynia, 

THE Empalement is five-parted, acute, very fmall, coloured, 
and permanent. 

The Corolla confifls of one petal, bell-fliaped and five-cleft; tht 

divifions reflexed. 
The Filaments are ten, awl-fhaped, longer than and fcarcely af» 

fixed to the corolla. The Antherce are two horned and nodding. 
The Germen is roundiffi. The Style cylindrical, longer than the 

Stamina and permanent. The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed-vej[fel a capfule, roundifh, pentagonal, five-celled, five 

valved, and gaping at the angles. 

The 



( 7 ) 

The Seeds are many, roundiih and iliiniiig. 
Obf. The Corolla in fome is ovate, in others perfedly bell- 
iliaped. 

The Species arCy native with us^ 

I. Andromeda arborea. The Sorrel Tree. 

It grows naturally in Virginia, to about ten or 
twelve feet high. The flowers grow in long naked 
bunches, coming out from the fides of the branches, 
of an herbaceous colour^ ranged on one fide of the 
common foot-ftalk: they are oval, pitcher-fhaped, 
and nodding; and are fucceeded by fmal! capfules. 

2. Andromeda calycvilata. Ever-green 

Divarf Andromeda. 

This is a low flirub, growing on moiTy land. The 
leaves are fhaped fomething like thofe of the Box 
tree, and are of the fame confidence, having many 
fmall pundures on them. The flowers grow in fliort 
racemi or bunches from the extremity of the branch- 
es, they are white and of a cylindrical pitcher-fliape. 

3. A N D R o xM E D A paiiiculata. Pmicled An- 

dromeda. 

This flirub grows in boggy wet ground, rifing from 
two or three to fix or feven feet high, fending out 
feveral branches which are clothed with oblong leaves, 
a little notched and placed alternately. The flowers 
grow in long loofe panicled racemi or bunches, at the 
extremity of the branches; they are pitcher-fhaped, 
and fucceeded by fmall round feed-veflels, having 
five cells, filled with fmall round feeds. There is a 
variety of this of low growth, differing in having 

fliorter 



( 8 ) 



r panlcled bunches of flowers, and thefe com- 
ing out at the divifions, as well as at the extremitiej? 
of the branches. 

4. Andromeda raceniofa. Pennfylvanian 
Red" bud Andromeda. 

This grows in low clayed lands, to the height of 
five or fix feet. The leaves are oblong and ferrated. 
The flowers are produced in a one fided racemus at 
the extremity of the branches, and refemble the 
other kinds. The long bunch of flower buds are of 
a beautiful red colour in the fpring, and thereby 
make a good appearance. 

. 5. Ani^Romed A mariana. Maryland^ or broad-^ 
leaved Andromeda. 

Is a fhrub of low growth, having but a fmallftem, 
which is generally retrofleded or bent from fide to 
fide. The leaves are egg-fliaped, entire, broad, and 
of pretty thick confiftence. The Seed-veflels are 
larger than the other kinds, gaping at their tops. 

6. AndrOxMEDA nitida, E^uer-green Jh'ining- 
leaved Andromeda^ or Carolinian Red-biids, 

(Bartram's Catalogue.) 

This flirub grows , naturally in Carolina and Flori- 
da, and may juftly be ranked among the mofl: beau- 
tiful flowering. 

The leaves are perennial, near three inches in 
length and one in breadth, of a hard and firm tex- 
ture, lance-fliape, of a deep fliining, or gloflfy green 
colour on both fides,, placed by pretty long footft:alks 
alternately upon each fide of the branches, but in- 
clining 



( 9 ) 

dining to the upper fide, and ftaiidlng nearly ereO:. 
The flowers are produced along the under fide of the 
branches, in long one rowed, racemi or bunches, 
which as they arrive to their full growth change to a 
damafk rofe colour. The under parts of the bunch- 
es fomewhat refemble the cells of a honey-comb, 
diffufing an agreeable fragrance, and affording a 
delicious harveft to the honey-bee. 

7. Andromeda pluniata. Plumed Andromeda^ 
or Carolinian Iron-uoood Tree. 

(Bartram's Catalogue.^ 

This is alfo a fouthern beautiful fpecies of Andro- 
meda; rifing to the height of fifteen or twenty feet, 
and fending off towards the top, many fpreading and 
nearly horizontal branches. 

The leaves are fmall, lance-lliaped, and of a deep 
gloffy green, but changing in Autumn before they 
fall off, to yellow, red, purple, &c. giving the trees 
a beautiful appearance, even in their decline. The 
flowers are produced at the extremity of the branch- 
es, in one-rowed racemes or bunches, they are very 
fmall and perfeftly white, fomewhat refembling a 
plume of delicate white feathers. This and the laft 
mentioned, grow naturally by the fides of ponds, and 
fwamps, in Carolina and Florida. 

A N N O N A. 

PAPAW TREE, or CUSTARD APPLE. 

Clafs 13. Order 7. Polyandria Polygynia. 

'T'HE Einpalement is three leaved and fmall: the leaves heart- 

fhaped, concave, and lharp-pointed. 
The Corolla is compofed of fix petals, heart-lhaped and feflile 
or fquat : the three alternate interior lefs. 

B The 



( lo ) 

The Filaments fcarce any. The Anthem are very numerous, 

fitting upon the fides of the Germen. 
The Gemen is fomewhat round, fitting upon a roundiili recept- 

acle. The Styles none. The Stigmas obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjel a very large berry or fruit, of an oval or oblong 

fiiape, covered with a fmooth rind, and of one cell. 
The Seeds arc feveral, hard, Ihining, oblong, oval, (compref- 

fed in fome fpecies) and placed in a circle. 

The Species "with us are^ 

1 . A N N o N A glabra. Carolinian Smooth-harked 

Annona. 

The bark is fmooth, the leaves broad, oval, but 
narrowed towards the bafe. The fruit is large, yel- 
low and fomewhat conical. This grows naturally in 
Carolina. 

2. An NONA triloba. Pennfylvanian Triple- 

fruited Papaw. 

This grows common in rich bottoms and by river 
fides, in Pennfylvania. It rifes to the height of ten, 
twelve, and fometimes twenty feet, with but few 
branches, garnifhed with pretty long large leaves, 
narrowed toward the bafe and fmooth on their edges. 
The flowers are folitary, and of a dark purple co^ 
lour; they have fhort footftalks, which with the 
flower-cup is covered with fhort brown hairs or 
down. The fruit is often found growing two or 
three together, which loon falls off, becomes very 
mellow and turns of a yellow colour* 

A R A L I A. 

THE ANGELICA TREE. 

Clafs 5. Order 5. Pentandria Pentagyina. 

AN Involucrum, which is very fmall, to the little globular 
umbels. 

The 



( II ) 

The Empalemenc is five-toothed, very fmall, and above. 

The Corolla confifts of five petals, which are ovate, acute, fef^ 
file and reflexed. 

The Filaments are five, awl-fliaped, and the length of the co- 
rolla. The Anthem are roundifh. 

ThQGermenis roundifh and beneath. The Styles five, very fliort, 
and permanent. The Stigmas fimple. 

The Seed-vejjel a berry, roundifh, fil iated, crowned and five- 
celled. 

The Seeds are folitary, hard, and oblong. 

The Species with us are^ 

Aralia fpinofa. Virginian Angelica Tree. 

This rifes with a thick woody ftem to the height 
of ten or twelve feet, dividing into feveral branches, 
which are garniflied with ramofe divaricated leaves, 
placed alternately. The flowers are produced in 
large, loofe, compound umbels, at the extremity of 
the branches: they are of an herbaceous colour, and 
are fucceeded by roundifh berries of a purpliWi co- 
lour when ripe. The ftem, branches, and footftalks 
of the leaves are armed with (hort ftrong fpines. 

ARBUTUS. 

THE STRAWBERRY TREE, or BEAR-BERRY. 
Clafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

T H E Empalement is five parted, obtufe, very fmall and 
permanent. 

The Corolla is one petalled, ovate, pla,niiTi at the bafe,- the bor- 
der is live cleft; the divifions obtufe, revolute and fmall. 

The Filaments are ten, awl-bellied, very llender at the bafe, 
half the length of the corolla, and affixed by the margin to 
its bafe. The Antherce are flightly two cleft and nodding. 

The Getmen is fomewhat globofe, fitting upon a receptacle 
marked with ten points. The Style is cylindrical and the 
length of the corolla. The Stigma is thickilTi and obtufe. 

The Seed-vejfel is a berry, roundilli and five celled. 

The Seeds are fmall and bony. 

The 



( 12 ) 



The Species with us are^ 

Arbutus Uva urfi. The Bear --berry. 

This grows naturally in the Jerfeys, It is a low 
trailing flirub, dividing into many branches, clofely 
fet with fmooth, thick, entire leaves, of an oval form. 
The flowers are produced in fmall bunches, near 
the ends of the branches, and are fucceeded by red 
berries. This has been ufed with great fuccefs in 
many calculous complaints. 

ARISTOLOCHIA. 

B I R T H W O R T. 
Clafs 20. Order 5. Gynandria Hexagynia. 

TH E Empalement is wanting. 
The Corolla is of one petal, tubulous and irregular : the 
'baje bellied, fomewhat globular and protuberant: the tuho 
oblong, fix cornered cylindrical : the border dilated and ex- 
tended beneath in a long tongue. 
The Filaments are wanting. The Antherce are fix adjoined un- 
der the Stigmas, and four celled. 
The Germen is oblong beneath and angled. The Style fcarce 
any. The Stigma fomewhat globular, fix parted, and con- 
cave. 

The Seed'veJJel is a capfule, which is large, hexagonal and fix 
celled. 

The Seeds are many, depreflfed and incumbent. 

Obf. The Seed-veJJel varies in figure,* in fome fpecies it is 
roundilh, in others oblong. 

The Species growing Jhrubby^ with us^ is one^ viz. 

Aristologhia f ru tefcens . Fennjylvanian 
Shrubby Birthwort. 

This grows naturally near Pittfburg, in a rich foil 
and (haded fituation ; rifing with ftirubby cylindri-. 

cal 



( 13 ) 

cal ftems, which twine round any neighbouring fup- 
port, and reach fometimes to the height of thir- 
ty feet or more, fending off many long twining 
branches. The leaves are large, entire, and heart- 
Ihaped, of eight inches or more in length, and as 
much in breadth, ftanding upon thick ftrong foot- 
llalks. The flowers come out fingly, or fometimes 
two together upon pretty long foot-ftalks, v/hich are 
cither terminal, or arife beneath the divifions of the 
branches, each having a bradea or floral leaf em- 
bracing it near its bafe ; they confift of a long tube 
which is very crooked and bellied towards the bafe^ 
but narrower towards the extremity, and furnifhed 
with a border which at firft appears three lobed and 
triangular (in form of a cockM hat,) but after be- 
comes fpreading, plain and roundifli, and together 
with the interior extremity of the tube, is finely va- 
riegated with fpots or ftreaks. The Capfules or 
Seed-veffels are cylindrical fix-fided, of three or 
four inches in length and near one in diameter, 
opening with fix fiffures, and having fix cells, filled 
with heart-ftiaped comprefled feeds, with a falfe one 
between each. This from its twining fl:ems and 
large leaves affords a fine ftiady covering for an ar- 
bour. 

The roots have an aromatic penetrating favour, 
and are fuppofed to be equal in medical virtues to 
the fmall Virginian Snakc-root. 

A S C Y R U M. 
St. PETER'S W O R T- 
Clafs 1 8. Order 3. Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

THE Empalement is of four leaves; the exterior oppofite are 
very fmall and linear; the interior heart-flmped, plane, 
large, and erecl^ and all permanent, , 

The 



( 14 ) 

The Corolla h of four petals, ovate: the exterior oppofite 

largeft, the interior lefs. 
The Filaments are numerous, briftly, flightly joined at the bafe 

into four parts. The Anthere are roundiiJi. 
The Germen is oblong. The Style fcarce any. The Stigma 

fimple. 

The Seed'veJJel a Capfule, oblong, fliarp pointed, and enclofed 

by the larger leaves of the empalement. 
The Seeds are numerous, fmall and roundifli. 

The Species are^ 

1. As CY RUM Hypericoides. St. Peter s Wort. 

This is a fmall fhrubby plant, growing naturally 
in low moid ground, and rifmg with a few flender 
ftems to the height of about eighteen inches, hav- 
ing fmall oppofite branches, which are fomewhat 
flatted. The leaves are fmall, oblong, fomewhat 
wedge-fhape, placed oppofite, and fitting clofe. 
The flowers are fparingly produced at the tops of 
the flialks, and have fomewhat the appearance of 
thofc of St. John's wort. 

2 , As c Y R u M villofum. Villofe St. Peter s uuort. 

This rifes to the height of about three feet, with 
erc£t flialks. The leaves are oblong and hairy. The 
flowers are produced at the tops of the flialks, re-» 
fembling thofe of St. John's wort, but have only 
four petals. 

AZALEA. 

UPRIGHT HONEY-SUCKLE. 
Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is five parted, ere(5l, acute, fmall, coloured 
and permanent, 

The 



( 15 ) 

The Corolla is monopetalous, bell-fliaped, and half five-cleft : 

the fide divifions inflexed. 
The Filaments are live, filiform, free, unequal in length, and 

inferted in the receptacle. The Jntherce are fimple. 
The Germen is roundifh. The Style filiform, the length of the 

corolla and permanent. The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjel is a Capfule, roundiih, five cell'd, and five 

valv'd. 

The Seeds are fcveral, roundiili. 

OhJ. The figure of the petal in fome Species is funnel form, 
in others bell-fhaped; the flamina in fome are alfo very long 
and declined. 

The Species with us^ are^ 

I. Azalea nucliflora. Red-Jlowered Azalea. 

This grows moll; common upon a moift, clayey, 
gravelly foil, rifing from two or three, to five or fix 
feet in height. The leaves are.produced in clufters 
at the extremity of the branches; they ajre oblong, 
inverfe, egg-fhaped, and a little hairy upon their 
edges and midribs underneath. The flowers are 
produced early in the fpring before the leaves are 
expanded, in heads or clufters at the ends of the 
ftalks and chief branches, of a red colour, and hairy, 
with very long red ftamina. There is great variety 
in the colour of the flowers, from red to almoft 
white. 

2. Azalea vifcofa. White fweet Azalea. 

This grows naturally in rich rocky places, near 
ftreams of water; rifing to the height of five or fix 
feet. The leaves are much fmaller and of a paler 
green colour than thofe of the red flowered, other- 
wife refembling them. The flowers are produced 
after the leaves are fully expanded, (about harvefl 
time;), they are white, hairy and clammy, and have 
the fragrance of the honey-fuckle. 

3. Azalea ' 



( i6 ) 



3. AzALE \ viftofa paluftris. Swamp Azalea, 

This is a Variety of the white kind, growing na- 
turally in wet low ground. It is of lower growth, 
with leaves rough and clammy at their firft appear- 
ance. The flowers are white, but not fo fweet as the 
former. There is alfo fome other varieties differing 
fomewhat in the difpofition or appearance of their 
flowers, &c. 

BACCHARiS. 

PLOWMAN^s SPIKENARD. 

Clafs 19. Order 2. Syngenefia Polygamia 
Super flu a. 

THE Common Caly^ is cylindrical, and imbricated: the Scales 
linear and acute. 
The Compound Corolla, is equal with Plorets Hermaphrodite and 
» Female mixed. 

The Froper of the hermaphrodite is funnel-form and five cleft, 

„ of the female fcarce manifeft, or almoft none. 

The Filaments of the hermaphrodite are five, capillary and very 

fmall. The Jntherce cylindrical and tubulous. 
The Gernien of the hermaphrodite is ovate. The Style filiform 

and the length of the flower. The Stigma is bifid or two 

cleft. 

Of the female very like the hermaphrodite. 
The Seed'VejJel none, but the calyx changed. 
The Seeds of the hermaphrodite and female much alike, folita- 

ry, very lliort, and oblong. The Pappus fimple. 
The Receptacle is naked. 

T/je Species are^ 

Baggharis halimifolia. Virginian Ground/el 
Tree. 

It rifes to the height of fix or eight feet, fending 
out many erect branches^ garnifhed with leaves 

which 



( *7 ) 



which are fomewhat ovate, and a little toothed above, 
continuirtg green moft of the year. The flowers are 
produced at the extremity of the branches, and are 
of a yellowifli white colour. 

B E R B E R 1 S. 

The B A R B E R R Y - B U S H. 

Glafs 6. Order i. Hexandria Monogynia« 

npHE Empalement is fix leaved and fpreading; the leaves ovate^ 
narrower at the bafe, concave, the alternate lefs, colour^ 
ed, and deciduous. 

The Corolla is of fix petals, which are roundifli, concave, fome- 
what fpreading, and fcarce larger than the calyx. 

A Ne&arium of two corpufles, roundilTi, coloured and affixed 
to the bafe of each petal. 

The Filaments are fix, ereft, compreflTed and obtufe. Two ^n- 
thercs are joined to the top of each filament. 

The Germen is cylindrical and the length of the ftamina. The 
Style is wanting. The Stigma is orbiculate, broader than the 
germen, and furrounded by an acute margin. 

The Seed-vejjel is a berry, which is cylindrical, obtufe and of 
one cell. 

The Seeds are two, oblong, cylindrical and obtufe. 

The Species are^ 

B E R B E R R i s caiiadicnfis . The Canadian Bat '^ 
berry. 

This grows naturally in Canada, and fomewhat 
refembles the European Barberry, except the leaves 
behig much fiiorter and broader, and the fruit, when 
ripe, of a black colour. There is alfo a kind of 
Barberry growing upon New- River in Virginia, bear- 
ing red berries, of which 1 have feen one fmall 
plant. 



c 



BETULA. 



( i8 ) 



B E T U L A. 

The B I R C H-T R E E. 
Clafs 21. Order 4. Monoecia Tetrandria. 

*nrHE Male flowers are difpofed in a cylindrical Katkin. 

The Calyx, is a common Katkin, imbricated on all fides, 
loofe and cylindrical compofed of triflorous ScaleSy to 
each of which, two very minute fcales are placed at the 
fides. 

Xhe Compound Corolla confifts of three florets, equal, and affix^ 
ed to the difk of each fcale of the Katkin. 
The Proper is monopetalous, four-parted, fpreading, and 
fmall: the divifions obtufe and egg-lliaped. 

The Filaments are four, very fmall. The Jntherce are twin. 

* The Female flowers are difpofed inKatkins on the fame plant. 

The Calyx is a common Katkin, imbricated; with three fcales 
every where oppofed, aflSxed to the rachis, heart lliaped with 
a point, biflorous, a little divided by a pointed body in the 
bofom towards the top, concave, and fliort. 

The Corolla none manifeft. 

The Germen proper, is ovate, very fmall. The Styles are two, 
brifl:ly, and the length of the fcales. The Stigmas fimple. 

The Seed-veJJel none. The' Katkin embracing the feeds of twt 
florets under each fcale. 

The Seeds are folitary and ovate. 

The Species zuith us are^ 

I. Betula nigra. Blacky or Sweet-^Birch. 

This becomes a large tree, often rifing to the height 
of fifty or fixty feet, and fending off many branches. 
The leaves are egg-fhaped and doubly or irregularly 
ferrated, the fmall ferratures are clofe, the larger 
more remote; their footftalks are villofe. The fmall 
branches are alfo covered with down. The natives 
often make their canoes of the bark of this tree. 



2. Betula 



( 19 ) 

2. Betula lenta. Red Birch. 

This grows to a pretty large fize, fpreading into 
many flender pliable branches. The leaves are 
fmooth, heart-fliaped, oblong, fharp-pointed, and 
finely and flightly fawed on their edges. 

3. Betula papyrifera. White Paper Birch. 

This is a variety of the laft, growing to a midr 
dling fize and pretty much refembling it, except in 
having a very white fmooth bark. 

4. Betula populifolia. Afpen-leaved Birch. 

This is alfo a variety of the fecond, and grows 
naturally in the Jerfeys, and other eaftern ftates, be- 
coming a pretty tall tree, and covered v/ith a white 
bark. The leaves are fomewhat triangular, like 
thofe of the Afpen tree, but terminating in a long 
acute point J they are doubly ferrated, ftanding up- • 
on long flender footftalks, and are put in motion by 
the flighted breeze of wind. 

5. Betula humilis. Dwarf Birch. 

This is alfo a variety of the fecond kind, of alow 
and dwarfifli growth. 

BETULA-ALNUS. 

The a L D E R TREE. 

THHE Charaders are the fame of the Betula, except the 
^ Seed'VeJJel being a roundifli cone. 

The Species .are, 

I. Bjstula 



( 20 ) 



1. Betula-Al N u s glauca. Silver^leaved 

Alder. 

This grows naturally in low marfhy ground, and 
frequently rifes to the height of ten or twelve feet. 

2. Betula-Alnus maritima. Sea-ftde Alder. 

This grows to the height of the former. T^hc 
leaves are long and narrow. The katkins are gene- 
rally in bloom in Auguft, at which time the female 
cone or feed-veffcl fets, but don*t grovi^ to perfediori 
till the next fummer. ' 

3. Betula-Alnus rubra. Common Alder. 

This grows very common in mod parts of Penn- 
fylvania. The leaves are broader than the other 
kinds, and rough or wrinkled. This flowers in the 
fpring, and perfects its feeds in the fall. 

B I G N O N I A. 

The TRUMPET FLOWER. 

Clafs 14, Order i. Didynamia Angiofpermia. 

'T'HE Empalement is of one leaf, ere6t, cup-form, and five- 
cleft. 

The Corolla is monopetalous, and bell-fliaped. The tube very 
fmall and the length of the calyx. The chaps very long, 
bellied underneath, and of an oblong bell-lliape. The bor- 
der is five parted ; the two fuperior divifions reflexed ; the 
inferior fpreading. 

The Filaments are four, awl-fhaped and lliorter than the corol- 
la, of which two are longer than the reft. The Anthem are 
reflexed, oblong, and as if doubled. 

The Germen is oblong. The Stjk thread-form, of the fituation 
$ind lliape of the ftamina. The Stigma is beaded. 

The 



{ 21 ) . 



The Seed'Veffel is a liliqua or pod, of two cells and two x^alves. 
The Seeds are pretty many, imbricated, compreffed, and having 
a membranaceous wing. 

Ohf. The Catalpa delights in only two perfed flamina, and 
three imperfed rudiments, with a pentaphyllous calyx. 

^he Species are^ 

I. BiGNoNiA Catalpa, The Catalpa-Tree. 

This rlfes to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, 
with a ftrong ftem, dividing into feveral branches, 
which are garniflied with large heart-fhaped leaves, 
placed oppofite at each joint. The flowers are pro- 
duced in large branching panicles, at the ends of the 
branches; of a dirty white colour, with a few purple 
fpots, and faint ftripes of yellow on the infide; and 
waved on their edges : they are fucceeded by very 
long flender pods, filled with flat winged feeds, lying 
over each other like the fcales of a fifli. 

2. BiGNoNiA crucigera. Crofs-vine. 

This rifes with flender trailing fl:alks, which mufl: 
be fupported, fo require the afliftance of a wall, and 
a good afpeft; being impatient of much cold. The 
branches are clothed with oblong leaves remain- 
ing green all the year. The flowers are produced at 
the wings of the leaves, fliaped much like thofe of 
the Fox-glove; and are of a yellow colour. 

3, BiGNoNiA radicans. CHming Trumpet-- 
Flower. 

This kind, when old, hath large rough fl:ems, 
which fend out many trailing branches, putting out? 
roots at their joints, thereby attaching themfelves to 
any neighbouring fupport, and rifing fometimes to 



( 22 ) 



the height of forty or fifty feet. The branches are 
garnifhed with winged leaves placed oppofite, which 
are generally compofed of four pair of fmall leaves, 
terminated by an odd one. The flowers are produce 
ed at the ends of the Ihoots of the fame year, in large 
bunches; they have long fwelling tubes, fliaped 
fomewhat like a trumpet, and are of^an orange co- 
lour, incHning to red j and fucceeded by large pods 
full of winged feeds. 

4. BiGNONiA fempervirens. Ever-green Big^ 
nonia^ or Yellow Jafmine. 

This kind refembles the fecond fo much as to re- 
quire no further defcription. 

CALLICARPA. 

CALLICARPA. 
Clafs 4. Order i. Tetrandria Monogynia. 

nPHE Empalement is of one leaf, bell-fhaped: at the mouth 
four-parted and ered. 

The Corolla is of one petal, tubulous : The border four-clefc, 
obtufe and fpreading. 

The Filaments are four, thread-form, twice the length of the 
corolla. The AnthercB ovate and incumbent. 

The Germen is roundilh. The Style thread form, thicker above. 
The Stigma thickifh and obtufe. 

The Seed'VeJJel is a berry, globofe and fmooth. 

The Seeds are four, fmall, callous, oval, compreffed, fome- 
what convex on one fide, but a little hallowed as if eaten oa 
the other. 

^here is but one Species of this Genus, viz. 

Callicarpa americana, Carolinian Shrubby 
Callicarpa. 

This flirub rifes from three to five feet high, with 
but flender Items, fending out many branches from 

the 



( 23 ) 

the fides, which are wooly or downy when young, 
garniflied with oval, fpear-lhaped leaves, placed op- 
pofite on pretty long footftalks. The flowers come 
out in whorls round the ftalks, fitting very clofe; 
they are fmall and tubulous, cut into four obtufe 
fegments at the top, which expand and are of a deep 
purple colour ; thefe are fucceeded by foft fucculent 
berries, which are of a deep purple colour when full 
ripe, each enclofing four hard feeds. This is a na- 
tive of Carolina and will not endure much cold. 

CALYCANTHUS. 

CAROLINIAN ALLSPICE, 

Clafs 12. Order 5. Icofandria Polygynia. 

'X'FIE Calyx is of one leaf, thickened, fquarrofe, fomewhat 
top-ihaped, truncated, almoft clofed above; and perma- 
nent. 

The Corolla is compofed of many leaves, which are oblong, 
coloured, of thick and flefhy confiftence, longer than the 
calyx, fomewhat fpreading, but chiefly lightly incurved their 
whole length; inferted in the truncated margin of the calyx, 
difpofed in feveral feries or rows circularly, of unequal 
length and deciduous. 

The Filaments are many, lliort, awl-lTiaped and inferted in the 
top of the calyx; the ex'terior of which, have oblong fur- 
rowed Anthercd adjoined to their apex; the interior barren 
and doling the calyx. 

The Germsn are many, oblong, villofe, and hid within the calyx. 

Tho Styles many, joined in a medullary column and protrud- 
ing in the center of the barren filaments, which ferve for 
its defence. 

The Seed-vejjel none but the calyx, thickened, much enlarged, 

berry' d, and fomewhat inverfe egg-fhaped. 
The Seeds are many, oval, fomewhat villofe, and furrounded 

longitudinally with a future. 

We have but one Species of this Genus, viz. 

Calycanthi'- 



( 24 ) 



Calycanthus floridus. Carolinian Allfpice. 

This delightful fweet-fccnted flirub, grows natural- 
ly in Carolina, and rifes from four to fix or eight feet 
high, fending out many fmall branches, which are 
placed oppofire and garniflied with oval entire leaves; 
which arc likewife oppofite. The flowers are pro- 
duced fingly, at the extremities of the fame year's 
Ihoots; they are of a fallen or dark purple colour, 
and when fomewhat expanded, diffufe to a confider- 
able dirtance, a very agreeable fcent, fcarcely diftin- 
giiiihable from that of ripe ftrawberries. It flowers 
in May, and by fucceflion till almoft harveft* The 
flowers are fucceeded by large, fomewhat oval, 
rough, fvvelling capfules, of two inches or more in 
length, and one in diameter, containing many oval 
brown feeds. 

C A R P I N U S. 

The HORNBEAM - TREE. 
Clafs 21. Order 8. Monoecia Polyandria. 

^TTHE Male Flowers are difpofed in a cylindrical Katkin. 

The Cal'jx is a common Katkin loofely imbricated on all 

fides ; compofed of fcales which are uniflorous, ovate, 

concave, acute, and ciliated. 
The Corolla is none. 

The Filaments are for the moft part ten, very Quail. The An^ 
ther(B are twin, compreffed, villofe at the apex, and two 
valved. 

* The Femak Flowers are difpOfed in a long Katkin, on the fame 

The Cal^jx is a common Katkin loofely imbricated, confifting ot 
Scales which are lance- fKaped, villofe, reflexed at the apex, 
and one flowered. . 

The Corolla is cup-form, of one leaf, fix cleft, with two divi- 
Cons larger, . 



( 25 ) 



The Germen are two, very fliort, each having two St\fleSy which 
are long, capillary and coloured. The Stigmas are fimple. 

The Seed-vejfel none. The Katkin being enlarged and contain- 
ing a feed at the bafe of each fcale. 

The Seed is a nut, ovate and angled. 
Obf, The feeds of the Carpinus Betulus are contained within 

the bafe of the concave calycine fcale : but of the Oftrya with* 

in the inflated fcaie. 

The Species are, with us, 

I. Carpinus Betulus virginiana. American 
Hornbeam. 

This grows common by moft of our river and 
creek fides, rifing with a ftrong, woody, fomewhat 
angular ftem, to the height of ten or fifteen feet; 
fpreading into many branches, with oval, pointed 
leaves, fawed on their edges. The flowers are pro- 
duced at the ends of the young fhoots, in loofe, leafFy 
katkins, and are fucceeded by fmall, hard, angular 
feeds. 

2. Carpinus Oftrya. The Hop- Hornbeam, 

This tree often grows larger and more upright 
than the former, the wood is tougher, the branches 
fewer and more ereft. The leaves fomewhat refem- 
ble thofe of the Elm. The male katkins are pro- 
duced at the extremity of the branches, they are 
fet the preceding fall, and remain all winter. The 
female flowers are produced in inflated chaffy katkins, 
much refembling a hop, from whence it acquired 
its name. There is a variety of this called the F/r- 
ginian flowering Hop-Hornbeam, which I have not 
feen. 



D 



CASSINE. 



( ^6 ) 



C A S S I N E. 



CASSINE, oi-SOUTH-SEA TEA-TREE. 
Clafs 5. Order 3. Pentandria Trigynia. 

nPHE Empalement is five-parted, beneath, very fmall, obtufe, 
and permanent. 

The Corolla is five-parted and fpreading ; the divifions are fomc- 
what ovate, obtufe, and larger than the calyx. 

The Filaments are five, awl-fliaped and fpreading. The Mnthertz 
are fimple. 

The Germen is above and conical. The St^le none. The Stig- 
mas three, reflexed and obtufe. 

The Seed-ve[fel is a berry, roundifli, three-cell'd and umbilicat^d 
with the Stigmas. 

The Seeds are folitary and fomewhat ovate. 

The Species are^ 

Cassine Paragua. Ever-green Cajfme^ Taporiy ot 
South-Sea Tea-tree. 

This grows naturally in Carolina and fome parts of 
Virginia, but chiefly near the fea; and rifes to the 
height of ten or twelve feet, fending out branches 
from the ground upward, garniflied with Ever-green 
fpear-fhaped leaves, placed alternately: they are of 
a deep green colour, of a thick confiflence and a 
little notched on their edges. The flowers are pro- 
duced in clofe whorls, round the branches, at the 
footflialks of the leaves; they are white, and are 
fucceeded by red berries, with thice cells, each con- 
taining a fmgle feed. 



CEANOTHUS. 



( 27 ) 



CEANOTHUS. 

The NEW-JERSEY TEA-TREE. 
Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

TTHE Empalement is of one leaf, top-fliaped; the border is 
five-parted, acute, and incurved ; and permanent. 

The Corolla is compofed of five petals, equal, roundifh, hook- 
facked, comprefled, very obtufe, fpreading, lefs than the 
calyx, with claws the length of the petal, rifing from the in- 
cifions of the calyx. 

The Filaments are five, awl-ftaped, ere6l, oppofite to the pe- 
tals, and longer than the corolla. The Antherce are roundilli. 

The Germen is three cornered. The Style is cylindrical, half 
three-cleft, and the length of the Stamina, ThQ Stigma ob- 
tufe. 

The Seed'VeJJel is a berry, which is dry, tl>ree fruited, threc- 

cell'd, obtufe, and fet with tubercles. 
The Seeds ^xq folitary and ovate. 

The Species with us, but one, viz. 

Ceanothus americanus. American Ceanothus, or 
NeW'Jerfey Tea-tree. 

This is a low fhrub, growing common in moft 
parts of North America; feldom rifmg above four or 
five feet high, and fending out branches on every 
fide from the ground upward, which are garniflied 
with oval, pointed leaves, having three longitudinal 
veins, running from the foot-ftalk to the point, di- 
verging from each other in the middle; they are 
placed oppofite, and are of a light green colour. 
The flowers are produced at the extremity of the 
(hoots, in a clofe kind of Thyrfus ; they are of a 
white colour and when in bloom make a fine appear- 
ance. A decoflion of the roots of this llirub is 
eftcemed a certain cure^ not only in flight Gonor- 
rhoea's, 



( 28 ) 



rhsea's, which 1t ftops in two or three days, without 
any bad confequences ; but alfo in the moft invete- 
rate Venereal complaints. The leaves are dried and 
ufed by fome as a fubftitute for Bohea Tea, from 
which it acquired its name. 

CELASTRUS- 

The STAFF-TREE. 
Clafs 5* Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

'T'HE Empalevient is of one leaf, half-five- cleft, plane, and 

very fmail: the divifions are obtufe and unequal. 
The Corolla has five petals, ovate, fpreading, feflile, equal and 

reflexed at their margins. 
The Filaments are five, awl-fliaped and the length of the corolla. 

The Antherx are very fmali. 
The Germen is very fmall, immerfed in the receptacle, which is 

large, plane, and marked with ten ftreaks. The Style is awl- 

ihaped and fhorter than the ftamina. The Stigma is obtufe, 

and three-cleft. 

The Seed-veJIJel is a Capfule, coloured, ovate, obtufely three- 
cornered, gibbous, three cell'd, and three valv'd. 

The Seeds are few, ovate, coloured, fmooth, and half covered 
with an Arillus, four parted at the mouth, unequal and co- 
loured. 

The Species but one^ with us^ viz. 
Celastrus fcandens. American Climing Staff^ree. 

This grows naturally in many parts of North- 
America, rifing with a twining woody ftem to the 
height of ten or fifteen feet when fupported, fend- 
ing out many flender flexible branches, cloathed 
with oblong pointed leaves, a little fa wed on their 
edges. The flowers come out from the fides of the 
branches in loofe bunches ; they are of an herbace- 

ous 



( 29 ) 



ous colour, and arc fucceeded by roundifli three- 
cornered capfules, of a pale, or yellowifli red co- 
lour when ripe; which fpread open in three parts, 
difclofing their feeds after the manner of the Spin- 
dle Tree. The feeds are hard, oval and covered 
with a thin red pulp. It makes a very fine appear- 
ance when covered with ripe fruit. 

C E L T I S. 

The NET TLE- TREE. 

Clafs 23. Order i. Polygamia Monoecia. 

^nPHE Hemaprodite flowers are folitary and fuperior. 

The Empalement is one-leafed, and five-parted; the divi- 
fions ovate, fpreading and withering. 
The Coi^olla is wanting. 

Tiie Filaments are five, very lliort, hid by the Antherae, but after 
the difcharge of the farina, longer. The Anthem are oblong, 
thickilh, quadrangular, and four-furrowed. 

The Germen is ovate, fharp-pointed, and the length of calyx. 
The Styles are two, fpreading, varioufly inflexed, awl-lTiaped, 
very long, and downy on all fides. The Stigmas are fimple. 

The Seed-vejjel is a drupe, roundilTi and of one cell. 

The Seed is a nut, which is roundilli. 

*The Male flowers are in the fame plant, and inferior. 

The Empalement is fix-parted, other wife as the Hermaphrodite > 

1 he Corolla is wanting. 

The Filaments are as in the Hermaphrodite. 

The Species with us^ but one^ viz. 

Celtis occidentalis. American Tellow-fruited 
Nettle-tree. 

This grows naturally in many parts of North- 
America. It delights in a rich, moiil foil, in which 
it becomes a large tree, rifmg with a ftraight ftem, 
tbe bark of which, in young trees, is fometimes 

fmootb 



( 30 ) 

Imooth and of a dark coIoiLr, but as they advance 
becomes rougher and of a lighter colour. The 
branches arc fet thick on every fide, and garnifhed 
with oblique oval leaves, ending in points and faw- 
ed on their edges. The flowers come out oppofite 
to the leaves, upon pretty long footftalks; they are 
fmall and make but little appearance, and are fuc- 
ceeded by round, hard berries, about the fize of a 
fmall pea, of a yellow colour and fweet tafte when 
ripe. The juice of the fruit is faid to be aftringent 
and to give eafe in violent Dyienteries. 

CEPHALANTHUS. 

The B U T T O N - T R E E. 

Clafs 4. Order i . Tetrandria Monogynia. 

nPHE Common Empalement is none, but a globofe receptacle, 
coUeifling many florets into a little head. 

The Proper Empalement is one leaved, funnel-form and angular ; 
the border four-cleft. 

The Univerfal Corolla is equal. The Proper of one petal, funnel- 
form and acute. 

The Filaments are four, inferted in the corolla, and fliorter than 

the border. The Amlherce are globofe. 
The Germen is beneath. The St^k longer than the corolla. 

The Stigma globofe. 
The SeedveJJel none. 

The Seeds are folitary, long, leffened at the bafe, pyramidal and 
wooly. 

The Common Receptacle is round and villofe. 

ne Species but one^ viz. 

Ceph ALAN THUS occidcntalis. Button-tree. 

This fhrub grows pretty common by creek fides 
iind ponds, rifing to the height of fix or eight feet; 
growing very crooked, and fending out fevcral 

branches. 



( 31 ) 

branches, which grow oppofitc. The leaves are al- 
fo placed oppofite and often, upon young fhoots, by 
three^s ; they are near three inches long and one and 
a quarter brbad, having a ftrong vein running lon- 
gitudinally through them, they are of a light green 
and their footftalks change to a reddifli colour next 
the branches. The branches are terminated with 
globular heads, compofed of many fmall flowers, of 
a whitilh colour. 

C E R G I S. 

The J U D A S TREE. 

Clafs lo. Ordei' i. Decandria Monogynia. 

nPHE Empalement is of one leaf, very fliort, belMliaped, gib- 
bous beneath, and melliferous: the mouth is five toothed, 
ereft and obcufe. 

The Corolla is ten petai'd, inferted in the calyx, and counterfeit- 
ing a papilionaceous corolla. 

The WingSy are two petals, bent back, and affixed by long 
claws. 

The Standard^ one petal, roundifli, clawed, under and fliort- 
er than the wings. 

The KeeU two petals, joining in a heart-fliaped figure, in- 
cluding the parts of fru6lification and affixed by claws. 

The NeBarium^ a gland, ftyle form, under the germen. 
The Filaments are ten, diftind, awl-lliaped, declined, of which 

four are longer,- and covered. The Anthem are oblong, in- 
cumbent, and arifing. 
The Germen is linear-lanced and pedicel'd. The Style is of the 

length and fituation of the Itamina. The Stigma is obtule 

and arifing. 

The Seed-vejjel is a 'legumen or pod, whicja is oblong, acute, 

oblique pointed, and of one cell. 
The Seeds ^iQ feveral, roundifli and joined to the fuperior feir 

tine. 

The Species with us^ but one^ viz. 



Cercis 



( 32 ) 



Cercis canadenfis. Red-bud^ or Judas Tree. 

^ This grows naturally in feveral parts of North- 
America, rifing to the height of ten or fifteen feet, 
with a pretty ftrong trunk covered with a darkifh 
coloured bark; dividing upwards into feveral irregu- 
lar branches, furniflied with heart-fliaped leaves, 
fmooth upon their upper furface and edges, but a 
little downy underneath, having pretty long foot- 
ftalks. The flowers come out upon the branched 
upon all fides, many arifing from the fame point, 
with Ihort footftalks ; they are of a fine red colaur 
and coming out before the leaves, make a beautiful 
appearance. There is faid to be a variety of this in 
Carolina, with fmall flowers, 

C H I O N A N T H U S. 

The SNOW-DROP, or FRINGE TREE. 

Clafs 2. Order i. Diandria Monogynia. 

npHE Empalement is of one leaf, four-parted, ereft, Iharp- 
pointed and permanent. 

The Corolla is one petal'd and funnel-form. The tube is very 
ihort, fpreading, and the length of the caylx. The border 
with four divifions, which are linear, ere6l, acute, oblique, 
and very long. 

The Filaments are two, very fliort, awl-lTiaped and inferted in 
the tube. The Antherce are heart-fliaped, and ere6l. 

Tho^Germen is ovate. The fimpie and the length of the 
calyx. The Stigma is obtufe and three-cleft. 

The seed-vejjei is a drupe, roundifh or oval and of one cell. 

The Seed a ftriated nut. 

OhJ. The number of ftamina is often three or four. 

We bai^e but one Species in America^ viz. 

Chionanthus 



( 33 ) 



Chionanthus virginica, Virginian Snow-drop Tree • 

This fhrub grows naturally in feveral places in 
North America, in a moift foil ; rifing to the height 
of fifteen or twenty feet, fpreading into many branch- 
es, covered with a light coloured bark. The leaves 
are large, oblong and entire, placed nearly oppofite. 
The flowers are produced towards the extremity of 
the ftioots of the former year, upon Ihort, leafFy, 
common footftalks; at the bofom of the leaves of 
which, the proper footftalks come out, and are divid- 
ed for the moft part into three parts, but often more ; 
each fuftaining one fmall flower, with four very long, 
narrow, white petals ; which, when fully grown, make 
a beautiful appearance : thefe are fucceeded by oval 
berries, of a livid blackifli colour when ripe, each 
containing one hard, oblong, pointed feed. The 
bark of the root ot this flirub, bruifed and applied 
to frefli wounds, is accounted by the natives a fpeci- 
fic, in healing them without fuppuration. 

C L E T H R A. 

C L £ T H R A* 
Clafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia* 

THE Empakment is of one leaf, five-parted; the leaves are 
ovate, concave, creft and permanent. 
The Corolla confifts of five petals, oblong, broader without, a 

little fpreading, and longer than the caiyx. 
The Filaments are ten, awl-lhaped, and the length of the corol- 
la. The Anther(B oblong-ereft, gaping at the apex. 
The Germen is roundilli. The Style is thread*form, ered:, per- 
manent, and increafing. The Stigma is three-cleft. 
The Seed-veJJel is a capfule, roundilli, covered with the ealyx, 

three-cell'd and three-valv'd. 
The Seeds are many and angled. 



E 



fhere 



( 34 ) 



There is but one Species of this Genus^ viz. 

Clethra alnifolia. Alder leaved Clethra. 

This flirub grows common in Maryland, Virginia, 
and Carolina, in moid ground and by rivulets; rif- 
ing to the height of fix or eight feet, dividing into 
many branches, clothed with wedge-ftiape, oval, vein- 
ed leaves, fawed on their edges, refembling thofe 
of the Alder but longer ; which are placed alternate- 
ly. The flowers are produced at the extremity of 
the branches, in long clofe bunches; they are of a 
white colour, and when in full bloom make a very 
jine appearance. 

G O R N U S. 

The CORNEL, or DOGBERRY-TREE. 
Clafs 4. Order i . Tetrandria Monogynia. 

^PHE Cal^x confifts of an Iimlticrum of four leaves, many 
flowered: the leaves ovate, coloured, and deciduous; the 
oppofite interior fomewhat longer and narrower. 
An Empalementy very fmall, four- toothed, above and de- 
ciduous. 

The Corolla confifls of fgur petals, oblong, acute, plane, and 

fmaller than the Involucrum. 
The Filaments are four, awl-lliaped, ere6l, and longer than the 

corolla. The Anthem are roundiih and incumbent. 
The Germen is roundilK and beneath. The St^le filiform and 

the length of the corolla. The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjel is a drupe, or ftone-fruit, roundifli and umbili- 

cated. 

The Seed, a nut, heart-ilaped, or oblong, and two cell'd. 
OhJ, The Involucrum is wanting in moft of our Species, 

'The Species are^ with us^ - 



I. CORNUS 



( 35 ) 



1. CoRNUs alterna. Alternate branched^ or 

Female Virginian Dogivood. 

This grows to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, 
dividing upwards into many branches, which are 
covered with bark of a ftriated or ftreaked appear- 
ance. The fmall branches are placed alternate, 
bending at each divifion. The leaves arc entire, 
oval, fharp-pointed, and much veined. The flowers 
are produced in clufters at the extremity of the 
branches, and arefucceeded by roundifh berries of a 
dark purple colour when ripe. The fmall branches 
being alternate, afford a diftinguifhing mark for this 
fpecies. 

2. CoRNUS candidiflima. Swamp Jjnerican 

Dogivood. 

This fhrub grows to the height of fix or eight feet, 
moftly in moift or fwampy places; and is covered 
with a whitifti bark. The branches are placed oppo- 
fite, and alfo the leaves, which are lance-fliaped 
and pointed, and of a whitifh colour. The flowers 
are produced at the extremity of the branches, in 
clufters, and are fucceeded by whitilh fucculent ber- 
ries. 

3. Cur N us florida. Male Virginian Dogwood. 

This rifes with a ftrong ftem to the height of twelve 
or fifteen feet, dividing into many fpreading branch- 
es, which are fometimes placed oppofite, but often 
by four's, arifing from oppofite points and regularly 
difpofed. The leaves are oval, pointed, veined and 
entire. The flowers are produced at the extremity 
of the fmall branches, in clufters j having a common 

involucrum 



( 36 ) 



involucrum of four large white leaves, which are 
generally end-bitten and a little coloured at their 
extremities, and one oppofite pair, rather longer and 
narrower than the other. The flowers within are 
fucceeded by oblong, red berries. This flowers in 
May and is defervedly ranked amongfl: the beautiful 
flowering flirubs. The bark of this kind has been 
ufed with fome fuccefs as a fubfl:itute for the Peru- 
vian Bark. And to its top, regular difpofed flioots, 
our fpinfl:ers are often indebted for their diftafFs. 

4. Corn us fanguinea, American Red-rod 
Cornus. 

This grows in a moift: foil, to the height of eight 
or ten feet, generally many ft:ems arifing from the 
fame root. The bark of the young flioots is very 
fmooth, and of a beautiful dark red colour. The 
branches are placed oppofite, and alfo the leaves, 
which much refemble the firft and third kinds above 
defcribed. The flowers are produced in clufters at 
the ends of the branches, of a whitifli colour; and 
are fucceeded by fucculent berries of a bluifli colour 
when ripq. 

C O R Y L U S. 

The HAZEL, or NUT-TREE- 

Clafs 21, Order 8. Monoecia Polyandria. 

^TTHE Male flowers are difpofed in a long Katkin. 

The Cal^x^ a common Katkin, imbricated on all fides, and 
cylindrical; confining of Scales, which are uniflorous, 
narrowed at the bafe, at the apex broader, more ob* 
tufe, inflexed and three-cleft; the middle divifions of 
equal length, but twice the width of and covering the 

The 



( 37 ) 



The Corolla is wanting. 

The Filaments ^re eight, very fliqrt, joined to the Interior fide 
of the calycine fcale. The Anthem are oblong-ovate, fhort- 
er than the calyx, and ere6l. 

* The Female flowers are remote from the Male in the fame 
plant, fitting clofe and included in a bud. 

The Empalement is of two leaves, coriaceous, torn at the mar- 
gin, erefl, and the length of the fruit; at the time of flore- 
fcence, fcarce manifeft for its fmallnefs. 

The Corolla none. 

The Germen is roundifli and very (mall. The Stales two, brift- 
ly, coloured, and much longer than the calyx. The Stigmas 
are fimple. 

The Seed-vejjel none. 

The Seed, a nut fomewhat ovate, £haved at the bafe, fomewhat 
Gompreffed and pointed at the apex. 

The Species with us are^ 

1. CoRYLUs americana. American Hazelnut. 

This grows very common in a rich, loofe, moift 
foil; fpreading far by its roots, and rifing at firft with 
a fimple, ereftftem; which, as it grows old, is di- 
vided into a few irregular branches, cloathed with 
oval, pointed leaves, fawed on their edges. The 
Male katkins are produced at the ends of the branch- 
es, and the Female parts ahttle beneath them, often 
many together, at other times fingly ; and are fuc- 
ceeded by feed-velTels, roundifli at the bafe, but 
lengthened out into a leafFy, fringed expanfion, part- 
ed at the extremity ; each containing one nut. 

2. Co R y L u s cornuta. Divarf Filbert^ or 

Cuckold-nut. 

This kind much refembles the other, except in 
fize, feldom growiiig above three or four feet high j 
and alfo in having its ^uts fingle upon the branches, 

and 



( 38 ) 

and their hulks or feed-veffels fmaller and lengthened 
out into a point or horR, and clofely embracing its 
nuts. 

CRAT^GUS. 

The WILD SERVICE-TREE. 

Clafs 12. Order 2. Icofandria Digynia. 

nPHE Empalement is one leaved, concave-fpreading, five-tooth- 

ed and permanent. 
The Corolla is of five petals, roundilTi, concave, fitting clofe 

and inferted in the calyx. 
The Filaments are twenty, awl-fliaped, and inferted in the calyx. 

The Antherce are roundifli. 
The Gemen is beneath. The Styles are two, thread-form, and 

ereft. The Stigmas are headed. 
ThtSeed-veffel is a berry, fiefliy, roundifli, and umbilicated. 
The Seeds are two, longifli, diftind and cartilaginous. 

Botanical writers enumerate feveral Species of this 
Genus, native of thefe ftates; but I believe, upon 
more ftrift examination, they will chiefly be found 
to belong, with more propriety, to the Mefpilus. 
See Mefpilus. 

CUPRESSUS. 

The CYPRESS TREE. 
Clafs 21. Order 9. Monoecia Monodelphia. 

^ 'T^HE Male flowers are colle£ted in an ovate Katkin. 

^ The Calyx, a common ovate Katkin, compounded with 
fparfed flowers, confifting of Scales which are uniflorous, 
roundifli, fliarp-pointed on the fore part, targetted, op- 
pofite and in number about twenty. 

The Corolla none. 

The Filaments are wanting; but iom Anther (b are joined, in their 

ftead, to each fcale of the katkin. 
* The Female flowers are collected in a roundilTi cone, on the 

fame plant. 

The 



( 39 ) 

The C^/yx, a common cone, which is compounded of from 
eight to ten florets, confifting of Scales, which are uniflorous, 
oppofite, ovate, convex beneath and gaping. 

The Corolla none. 

The Germen is fcarce obfervable. In the place, perhaps, of 
Styles, there are numerous dots within each calycine fcale, 
which are truncated, and concave at the apex. 

The Seed-veJJel, none but the globofe cone, which is fliut, but 
gaping with orbiculate, angled, and targetted fcales. 

The Seed is a nut, which is angled, Iharp -pointed, and fmall. 

The Species with us^ are, 

1. CupRESSUs difticha. Virginian deciduous 

Cyprefs-Tree. 

This grows naturctUy in fwampy, low ground ; and 
becomes a lofty tree, of feventy or eighty feet in 
height, and three or four feet in diameter; dividing, 
towards the top, into many branches, clothed with 
fmall linear leaves, coming out upon all fides, yet 
inchning to but two fides of the fmall branches; and 
falling off in the autumn. The cones, of this kind, 
are roundifti and near an inch in diameter. The 
timber is valuable tor many ufes, affording great 
quantities of boards, fiiingles, &c. 

2. CupREssus Thyoides. Maryland Bluc-ber^ 

ridd Cyprejs. 

This, by fomc means, hlas obtained the name of a 
dwarf, yet it becomes a large tree, nearly equal in 
height and diameter to the former. The branches 
are covered with fmall ever-green leaves, much re- 
fcmbling thofe of the Arbor Vitse. The cones are 
about the fize of Juniper-berries, a little angular 
and having many cells. The timber of this is fofter 
than the other kind and applied to more general ufc, 

being 



( 40 ) 



being durable and not liable to be eaten by worms } 
it affords excellent planks, &c. for Ihip building; 
alfo ports, rails, boards, ftiingles, &c. &c. and to 
it our dairy women are indebted for tubs, pails, 
churns, &c, 

DIOSPYROS. 

The DATE PLUM, or PERSIMMON TREE. 
Clafs 23. Order 2. Polygamia Dioecia. 

* TTHE Hermaphrodite female. 

^. The Empalement is compofed of one leaf, four-cleft, large, 
obtufe and permanent. 

The Corolla^ of one petal, pitcher-fliape, larger, and four-cleft; 
the divifions acute and fpreading. 

The Filaments are eight, briftly, Ihort and lightly inferted in 
the receptacle. The Antherce are oblong and effoete. 

The Germen is roundilli. The Style one, half four-cleft, per- 
manent and longer than the ftamina^ The Stigmas are obtufe 
and two- cleft. 

Tho Seed'VeJJ^el is a berry, which isglobous, large, eight-cell'd, 

and fitting on the large fpreading calyx. 
The\Se^fi?j* are folitary, roundifli, compreffed, and very hard, 
*The Male in diftinft plants. 

The Empalement confifts of one leaf, four-cleft, acute, ered^ 
and fniall. 

The Corolla of one petal, pitcher-lliape, coriaceous, four-cor- 
nered and four cleft: the divifions areroundilTi andrevolute. 

The Filaments are eight, very iTiort and inferted in the recepta- 
cle. The AnthercB are doable, long, and acute; the interior 
lliorteft. 

The Fiftillum, is the rudiment of a germen. 

T^he Species with us^ but one, viz. 

DiosPYRos virginiana. Virginian Perjlmnton 
Tree. 

This grov/s naturally in moift clayey ground, in 
Pennfylvania and Maryland, as well as Virginia j rif- 

ing 



( 41 ) 



ang to the height of twenty feet or more^ fending 
out many fliortifli branches, garniflied with entire, 
oblong, pointed leaves; the flowers are produced 
upon the fmall branches, making but little appear- 
ance, and are fucceeded by large, globular or oblong 
fruit, which when fully ripe has a fweet agreeable 
tafte. A full grown tree will often yield two bufhels 
or more of fruit, which upon diftillation will afford 
as many gallons of Spirits, allowed to be equal in 
tafte and flavour to Weft India Rum. Our country- 
men have not enough attended to this, but in fome 
places they brew of them a very g6od Beer. There 
appears to be varieties of this, fome with early ripe 
large fruit, others with fmaller and late ripe. 

D I R C A. 

LEATHER WOOD. 
Clafs 8. Order i. Odlandria Monogynia. 

TT HE Empalement is wanting. 

^ The Corolla is one petal'd and clubbed. The tube is more 
bellied above. The border none, the margin unequal. 

The Filaments are eight, capillary, inferted in the middle of 
the tube, and longer than the corolla. The Anthem are 
routidilli and ereft. 

The Gemen is ovate, with an oblique top. The Style is thread- 
form, longer than the ftamiiia and Curved at the top. The 
Stigma is fimple. 

The Seed'Veffel is a berry of one cell. 

The Seed is one. 

"There is but one Species of this (ienuSy viz. 

DiRCA paiuftris. Virginian Marjh Leather'- 
wood. 

This is a low fhrub, growing in moift fliady places, 
feldom rifing more than three or four feet high, 

F fprcading 



( 42 ) 

fpreading into a head, with many fmall and very 
flexible branches, covered with a light coloured bark, 
and cloathed with oval fmooth leaves, of a pale green 
colour. The flowers are produced at the extreme 
ends of the former yearns ftioots; they are of an 
herbaceous colour and make but little appearance, 
but are fucceeded by oval berries, changing fome« 
what yellowifli when ripe. 

E P I G A. 

TRAILING ARBUTUS. 
Clafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

HE Empakment Is double J approximated, and permanent. 
The exterior confifts of three leaves, which are ovate-lanc- 
ed, and iliarp pointed; the exterior largefl. 
The interior is five- parted and ere(5t; a Jittie longer than 
the exterior: the leaf-lets are lanced and iTiarp pointed. 
The Corolla is compofed of one pitcher-form petal. The tube 
is cylindrical, rather longer than the calyx, and hairy within. 
The border is fpreading and five-parted, with ovate-oblong 
lobes. 

The Filaments are ten, thread-form, the length of the tube and 
affixed to the bafe of the corolla. The Antheree are oblong 
and acute. 

The Germen is globofe and villous. The Style is thread-form, 

and the length of the llamina. The Stigma is obtufe and 

fomewhat five-cleft. 
The Seed'vejjel is a capfule, fomewhat roundilh, depreffed, five 

fided, five cell'd, and five valv'd. 
The Seeds are many and roundilli. The receptable large and 

five-parted. 

"There is but one Species of this Genus^ viz. 

EpiGiEA repens. Trailing Arbutus. 

This grows naturally upon northern hills, or moun- 
tains, with trailing fhrubby ftalks, putting out roots 

at 



( 43 ) 

at their joints* The leaves are oblong, rough and 
waved on their edges. The flowers are produced at 
the ends of the branches, in loofe panicles, and are 
of a white colour, mixed with red, dividing at the top 
into five parts, and fpreading open in form of a flar. 

EUONYMUS. 

The S P I N D L E TREE. 
Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is compofed of one leaf, five-parted, and 
plane : the divifions are roundiih and concave. 
The Corolla confifts of five petals, ovate, plane, fpreading and 

longer than the calyx. 
The Filaments are five, awl- lli aped, ered, lliorter than the co- 
rolla, and placed on the germen as a receptacle. The An- 
ther(B are twin. 

The Germen is fliarp pointed. The St'jle is fliort and fimple. 

The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjel is a capfule, fucculent, coloured, pentagonal, 

with five angles, five cells and five valves. 
The Seeds are folitary, ovate and coveied with a berry'd Aril- 

lus, 

OhJ, In fome fpecies one fifth part of the fructification is taken 
away. 

The Species with us^ are^ 

I, EuGNYMUs carolinenfis. Carolinian Spindle 
Tree. 

This flirub grows to the height of eight or ten 
feet, dividing into many oppofitc branches, the 
young ftioots arc fomewhat quadrangular and mark- 
ed longitudinally, with green ftripes. The leaves 
are placed oppofite, and are oval, £harp pointed, and 
finely and flightly fawed on their edges, of a deep 

greeft 



( 44 ) 

green colour. The footftalks of the flowers come 
out from the bofom of the leaves of the young 
ihoots, and are generally divided into three parts to- 
wards their extremities, the middle divifion fuftain-. 
ing one, and the two fide ones, each three flowers ; 
having four deep purple coloured petals, expanding 
in form of a crofs, and four ftamina; thefe are fuc- 
ceeded by angular furrowed feed velTels, of a beau- 
tiful pale red colour when ripe, making a fine ap- 
pearance after the leaves are fallen off. 

2. EuoNYMUS latifolius. Broad-leaved Spin-- 

die Tree. 

This fhrub very much refembles the former, ex*, 
cept the leaves being broader and longer, and of a 
paler green colour, turning reddifh before they fall 
off. The feed-veffels are rather larger and rounder 
at the corners or angles, and of fomewhat paler cor 
iour, as are alfo the flowers. 

3. EuoNYMUs fempervirens* Ever-green 

Spindle Tree. 

This is of fmaller growth than either of the for- 
mer, feldom rifing above fix or feven feet, and di- 
viding into many oppofite branches, towards the top, 
which are of a greener colour, and more angular 
than the other kinds, and garniflied with narrower 
leaves, of a clofer texture. The flowers are produc- 
ed in manner of the former, except each footftalk 
fuftaining generally but three flowers, having five pe- 
tals, which are of a paler colour, and rounder than 
either of the former; and are fucceeded by roundifti 
capfules clofelyfet with fmall protuberances, turning 
of a fine red colour whon ripe, and opening into 



( 45 ) 



four or five parts, difclofing its feeds hanging by fine 
white threads. This makes a very beautiful appear- 
ance in autunan when its fruit are ripe ; and from 
their red appearance obtained the name of the Burn- 
ing Bufti. The young plants retain their leaves all 
winter. All the fpecies grow naturally in moift, 
fliaded places. 

F A G U S. 

The B E E C H - T R E E. 

Clafs 21. Order 8. Monoecia Polyandria. 

*nPHE Male flower^ are affixed to an Amentaceous receptacle. 
The Calyx is an Empalement of one leaf, bell-fliaped, and 
five-cleft. 
The Coro//« none. 

The Filaments are many (about twelve) the length of the calyx, 
and briftly. The Antherce are oblong. 
The Female flowers are contamed in buds upon the fame 
plant. 

The Calyx, an Empalement of one leaf, four-toothed, eretSt and 

acute. 
The Corolla none. 

The Germen is covered by the calyx. The Styles are three, awL 
iKaped. The Stigmas are Ample and reflexed. 

The Seed-vejfel is a capfule Cformerly the calyx) which is round- 
iili, large, fet round with foft fpines ; with one cell and four 
valves. 

The Seeds are two nuts, which are ovate, triangular, three 

valved and (harp-pointed. 
Obf^ The Male flowers of the Beech are difpofed in a globular 

form; thofe of the Chefnut in a cylindrical. 

We have but one Species of this Genus^ heftdes the 
Chefnut and Chinquepin^ which are fomewhat 
froperly joined with ity viz. 



Fag US 



( 46 ) 



F A G u s Sylvatica atro-punicea. American 
Beech Tree. 

This grows naturally in low, bottom grounds, by 
river fides, rifing fometimes to the height of forty 
or fifty feet, and to fifteen or eighteen inches in di- 
ameter, generally fending out many long branches, 
garniflied with very thin, oval, fpear-fhaped leaves, 
fawed on their edges, and remaining late upon the 
branches. The nuts are eaten by fwine. The wood 
is hard and clofe grained, and ufed for making laftsj 
joiner's tools, &c. 

FAGUS-GASTANEA. 

The CHESNUT TREE. 

THE Characters are nearly the fame of the Beech, except 
the Male flowers being difpofed hi cylindrical katkins. 
The St'jles more in number and briftly. The Capfules much 
larger, round, and fet very thick with long prickly Spines, con- 
taining from one to four or five, but generally two or three 
nuts, filled with fweet kernel. , 

The Species of Chefnui^ with us, are, 

1. Fagus-Castanea dentata. American 
Chefnut Tree. 

This often becomes a large tree, growing to the 
height of fixty or eighty feet, and to four or five 
feet in diameter, fending out but few branches, gar- 
niflied with long fpear-fliaped leaves, toothed or 
notched on 'their edges. The timber is ufed much 
for rails, fplitting free and out lafting moft of our 
Oaks. The kernel of the nuts are dried and ufed 
by fome as a fubftitute for Coffee. The wood is alfo 

burnt 



( 47 ) 

burnt into coals for the ufe of blackfmiths, &c. but 
not much efteemed for common fuel. 

2. Fag US-Cast A NE A pumila. Dwarf Chef'- 
nut Tree^ or Chinquepin. 

This feldom rifes above eight, ten, or twelve feet, 
otherwife much refembling the Chefnut in the ap- 
pearance of its branches and leaves. Its fruit cap- 
iules are fmall, and generally contain but one conical 
fhaped nut. It grows naturally in a light gravelly 
foil. 

FOTHERGILLA. 

FOTHERGILLA. 

Clafs 13. Order 2, Polyandria Digynia. 

TH E Empalement is of one leaf, hairy, and five-toothed at 
the margin. 
The Corolla is wanting. 

The Filaments from fixteen to eighteen, inferted in the calyx^ 
long, incurved and lefTened towards the bafe. The Anthem 
are minute. 

The Gertnen is oblong and villofe, ending in two acute Styles. 
The Seed'VejJel is a capfule, oblong, of two cells and covered 

by the calyx. 
The Seeds are fingle and oblong. 

The Species %aith us, 

FoTHERGiLLA Gardcnu Carolinian Fother-- 
gilla. 

This fmall, but beautiful flowering llirub grows 
naturally in Carohna, on the borders of favannahs, 
or near ponds of water; fpreading much by its roots. 
The ftalks are flender, rifing to the height of two 

or 



( 4« ) 



or three feet,' generally feveral from otic root, with 
fmall, alternate, divaricated branches. The leaves 
are oval, fomevvhat toothed towards the apex, and 
placed alternate. The flowers are produced in fpikes 
terminating the ftalks ; they are feflile, and each 
furniflied with a braclea or floral leaf, which is ovate, 
rough externally, longer than the empalement and 
fitting clofe at their bafe; they are produced early 
in the fpring and being thick fet, make a beautiful 
appearance with their long, fnowy white ftamina. 
The fruit or feed-veflfel very much refembles that of 
the Hamamalis or Witch Hazel, but is much fmall- 
er. 

This, in fome late Catalogues, has been called 
Toungfonia^ in honour of William Young, Botanift, 
of Pennfylvania; but by Dr. Linnaeus, Fothergilla 
in honour of the late Dr. Fothergill of London. It 
was firft fent to Europe, fr6m Carolina, by John 
Bartram, to his friend P. Collinfon, by the title of 
Gardenia. 

F R A N K L I N I A. 

F R A N K L I N I A. 
Clafs 1 6. Order 5. Monadelphia Polyandria. 

THE Empcdemem is of one leaf, five-cleft; the divifions 
roundiiTi. 

The Corolla confifls of five petals, large, fpreading, roundifh, 
narrowed towards the claw, and joined at the bafe. 

The Filaments are numerous, awl-fhaped, joined beneath in a 
cylinder, and inferted in the corolla. The Anthem are twin. 

The Germen is roundilh, lightly furrowed. The Style cylindri- 
cal and longer than the ftamina. The Stigma obtufe and 
rayed. 

The Seed'vejjeh a roundilTi nut with five cells. 
The Seeds are wedge-form, and feveral in each cell. 

The 



( 49 ) 



T/je Species one^ viz. 
Frank LI NiA alatamaha. FrankUnia, 

(Bartram's Catalogue.) 

This beautiful flowering, tree-like fhrub, rife^ 
with an ercd trunk to the height of about twenty 
feet ; dividing into branches, alternately difpofed* 
The leaves are oblong, narrowed towards the bafe, 
fawed on their edges, placed alternately, and fitting 
clofe to the branches. The flowers are produced 
towards the extremity of the branches, fitting clofe 
at the bofom of the leaves ; they are often five inches 
in diameter when fully expanded; compofed of five 
large, roundifli, fpreading petals, ornamented in the 
center with a tuft or crown of gold coloured fl:amina; 
and poflefled with the fragrance of a China Orange. 
This newly difcovered, rare, and elegant flowering 
flirub, was firft obferved by John Bartram when oil 
botanical refearches, on the Alatamaha river in 
Georgia, Anno 1760; but was not brought into 
Pennfylvania till about fifteen years after, when his 
fon William Bartram, employed in the like purfuits^ 
revifited the place where it had been before obferved, 
and had the pleafing profpeft of beholding it in its 
native foil, poflefled with all its floral charms; and 
bearing ripe feeds at the fame time; fome of which 
he coliefted and brought home, and raifcd feveral 
plants therefrom, which in four years time flowered, 
and in one year after perfected ripe feeds. 

It feems nearly allied to the Gordonia, to trhich 
it has, in fome late Catalogues, been joined: but 
William Bartram, who firfl: introduced it, believing 
it to be a new Genus, has chofen to honour it with 
the na^me of that patron of fciences, and truly great 

and 

G 



1 

i so ) 

and diftinguiflied charadler, Dr* Benjamin Franklin. 
The trivial name is added from the river, where 
alone it has been obferved to grow naturally. It 
delights in a loofe, fandy and moift foil. 

F R A X I N U S. 

The A S H - T R E E. 
Glafs 23. Order 2. Polygamia Dioecia. 

nPHE Flowers ^re Hermaphrodite and Female on different trees. 

*The Hermaphrodite: 
The Calyx none; or an Empalement of one leaf, four-parted, 

ere6l, acute, and fmall. 
The Corolla none,* or of four petals, linear, long, acute, and 

ered:. 

The Filaments are two, ere6l and fliorter than the corolla. The 
Antherce are ere6t, oblong, and four furrowed. 

The Germen is ovate and comprelfed. The Style cylindrical 
and ereft. The Stigma thickifli and two cleft. 

The Seed-vejjel none befides the cruft of the feed. 

The Seed is lanced, comprelTed-membranaceous and of one 
cell. 

* The Female are the fame in every part except wanting the 
ftamina. 

The Species are^ 

I. Fraxinus americana. Carolinian or Red 
AJh. 

This grows to the height of twenty or thirty feet, 
dividing into feveral branches, the fmall ones of 
which are generally oppofite; the leaves are com- 
pofed of three or four pair of lobes, terminated by 
an odd one, which are egg-fliaped and pointed, their 
upper furface of a light green colour, their under 
covered with fhort white downy hairs. The feeds 
are broad and of a light colour. 

2. Fraxinus 



( 51 ) 



2. Fraxinus alba. American White AJh. 

This tree grows fometiiues to the height of forty 
or fifty feet, and to eighteen inches or more in di- 
ameter. It grows much after the manner of the 
former, only the leaves are broader, and the feeds 
narrower. The timber of this is uled much by 
Wheelwrights, Chaife-makers, &c. for making 
ihafts, rimming of wheels, &c, 

3^ Fraxinus Nigra. Black AJh. 

This kind grows in moift places, rifing to the 
height of thirty feet or more, covered with a rough, 
lightifh coloured bark, and fending out but few 
branches. The leaves are chiefly produced at the 
ends of the branches, and are generally compofed 
of four pair of lobes, and an odd one, which are 
ftaped like thofe of the other kinds, but are fmall- 
er and finely fawed on their edges. The feeds or 
keys are broad and flat, and of equal width their 
whole length. 

4. Fraxinus pennfylvanica. Pennfylvanian 
Sharp- keyed Aflo. 

This kind often grows to the height of thirty feet 
or more, and is generally thick fet with branches 
towards the top, having leaves much refembling the 
White Afli. The feeds grow in large panicles, thick 
fet upon the fides of the branches, near their extre- 
mities : they are longer and narrower than any of 
the other kinds, almoft terminating in a point at 
their bafe. This alfo affords a valuable wood, which 
is ufed for the fame purpofes as that of the White 

The 



( 52 ) 



The infide bark and keys of Afli, are accounted 
good to promote urine. 

G A U L T H E II I A. 

GAULTHERIA, or MOUNTAIN TEA. 
Clafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 



The exterior two leaved and fhorter: the leaves femi- 

ovate, concai^e and obtufe. 
The interior one leaved, five-cleft and beli-fhaped; the 
fegments fcmi- ovate. 
The Corolla is monopetalous, ovate and half five deft: the 
border fmall and revolute. 

A Ne^arium of ten corpufcules, which are awl-fhaped, erefl^ 
very lliort, and furrounding the germen within the ftamina. 
The Filaments are ten, awl-lliaped, incurved, fhorter than the 

corolla, and inferted in the receptacle. The ^ntherce are 

two horned: the horns bifid. 
The Gefmen is roundiili and depreffed. The Style cylindrical 

and the length of the corolla. The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed'vejjel is a capfule, roundiili, obtufe five^-fided, depref- 

ed, five ceird, and five valv'd; covered on all fides by the 

interior empalement, and becoming a roundilTi coloured ber- 

TY, pervious at the apex. 
The Speeds are many, fomewbat ovate, angled and bony. 

^here is but one Species of this Genus^ viz. 

Gaultheria procumbens. Canadian GauU^ 
theria^ or Mountain Tea. 

This is a very fmall Ihrnbby plant, with flender 
ftcms, feldcm riling above five or fix inches in height; 
havings at their tops, four or five oval ever-green 
leaves, which are marked with a few^ fmall points or 
ferratures upon their edges. The flowers come out 
from the bofom of the leaves, of a white colour. 




approximate and permanent. 



and 



( 53 ) 



and are fucceeded by fmall berries of a red colour 
when ripe. The leaves have been ufed as a fubfti- 
tute for Bohea Tea, whence the name of Mountain 
Tea. 

G L E D I T S I A. 

TRIPLE'THORNED ACACIA, or HONEY LOCUST. 

Clafs 23. Order 2. Polygamia Dioecia. 

'"PHE Flowers are Male and HemaphmlUe upon the fame 

plant, and Female upon a diiferent plant. 
*The Male are in a long, compafl, cylindrical katkin. 
The Calyx; a proper empalement of four leaves; th6 leaves 

fpreading, fmall and acute. 
The Corolla confifts of three petals, roundifli, feffile, fpreading, 

and cup form. 

A NeBaviiimy top-lliaped, to whofe borders the remaining 
parts of fruftification grow. 
The Filaments are fix, thread-form, and the length of the co- 
rolla. The Antherce are incumbent, oblong, comprefTed and 
twin. 

* The Hermaphrodite are in the fame katkin with the male flow- 
ers, and for the mofl: part terminal. 

The Calyx, an empalement, four leaved, as in the male. 

The Corolla, four petals, as in the male. 
The Ne^arinm as in the male. 

The Stamina as in the male. 

The PijlUlum, Seed-veffel, and Seeds as in the fentale. 

The Female Flo^vers are in a loofe katkin, in a different plant. 
ThQ,Calyx\ a proper empalement, as in the male, but five leaved. 
The Corolla, live petals, which are long, acute, and foraewhat 
fpreading. 

The Nc^aria are two, very lliort, like the filaments. 

ThQGermen is broad, comprelTed, and longer than the corolla. 
The Style Is fhort and reflexed. The Stigma is thick and the 
length of the flyle, to v/hich it is adjoined, growing hairy 
above. 

The Seed'VejJel is a legumen or pod, very large, broad, and 
much compreired, v/ith many tranfverfe partitions ; with 
illhnuifes filled with pulp. 

Tjic Seeds are folitary, roundiili, hard and ftining. 

The 



( 54 ) 



The Species with^ us are^ 

I. Gleditsia fpinofa. Triple-thomed Acacia^ 
or Honey Locuft. 

This tree grows naturally in a rich foil, rifing to 
the height of thirty or forty feet, dividing into ma- 
ny branches, which, together with the trunk, are 
armed with long pithy fpines of five or fix inches in 
length, fending off laternal ones, fome of which 
are nearly the fame length, and generally triple thorn- 
ed. The branches are garniflied with winged leaves, 
compofed of ten, or more pair of fmall lobes, fitting 
clofe to the midrib, of a lucid green colour. The 
flowers come out from the fides of the young 
branches in form of katkins, of an herbaceous co- 
lour, and are fucceeded by crooked, comprefTed 
pods, from nine or ten to fixteen or eighteen inches 
in length, and about an inch and a half or two inch- 
es in breadth, of which near one half is filled with 
a fweet pulp, the other containing many feeds in 
feparate cells. The pods, from the fweetnefs of 
their pulp, are ufed to brew in beer. 

2. Gleditsia aquatica. Water Acacia. 

This fort grows naturally in Carolina, and hath 
much the appearance of the firft, but hath fewer 
fpines, which are very fliort. The leaves are alfo 
fmaller and the pods oval, containing but one feed. 

GLYCINE. 

PERENNIAL KIDNEY BEAN. 
Clafs 17. Order 3. Diadelphia Decandria. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, compreffed and two lipped: 
the upper lip emarginate and obtufe : the lower, longer, 
acute, and three-cleft; the middle divifion longeft. 

The 



( 55 ) 



The Corolla papilionaceous, or butterfly iTiaped. 

The Standard inverfe heart-fliaped, the fides deflexed, the 
back gibbous, the apex emarginate, ftraight and bent from 
the keel. 

The Wings oblong, ovate towards the top, fmall and bent 
downwards. 

The Keel linear, hooked, broader and obtufe towards the 
point, and bent upwards, prefTmg againft the ftandard.^ 
The Filaments are diadelphous, or one fingle, and nine conjoin- 
ed ; a little dividing at the top, and revolute. The Jntherce 
are fimple. 

The Germen is oblong. The Style cylindrical, bending back in 

a fpire. The Stigma obtufe. 
The Seed-vejfel an oblong legumen or pod. 
The Seeds kidney form. 

Obf, Glycine frutefcens has legumens or pods of two cells. 
TAe jhrubhy Species with us^ is one^ viz. 

Glycine frutefcens. Carolinian Shrubby 
Kidney Bean. 

This grows naturally in Carolina, rifing with 
twining fhrubby ftems, when fupported, to the 
height of ten or fifteen feet. The leaves are wing- 
cd, and compofed of about five pair of fmall, oval, 
pointed pinnae or lobes, fmooth and of a pale green 
on their upper furface, but lighter underneath, hav- 
ing their edges a little reflexed and hairy. The 
flowers terminate the branches in a clofe, eretl ra- 
cemus or bunch; they are of a purphfli blue co- 
lour, and are fucceeded by long cylindrical pods 
of two cells, fhapcd like thofe of the fcarlet Kidney 
Bean. 



GUILANDINA. 



( 56 ) 



GUILANDINA. 

The BONDUC, or NICKAR TREE. 
Clafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

^PHE Empakment is one leaved, bell-fliape; the border five 

parted, equal, and fpreading. 
The Corolla confifiis of five petals, lanced, concave, fquat, equalj 

fomewhat larger than the calyx and Inferted in its chaps. 
The Filaments are ten, awl-iliaped, ereft, inferted in, and lliort- 

er than the calyx : the alternate lefs. The Anthem are ob- 

tufe and incumbent. 
The Gemen is oblong. The Style is thread-form and the length 

of the (lamina. The Stigma is fimple. 
The Seed-vejfel is a legumen or pod, which is rhomboid, con- 
vex on the upper future, bellied-comprelTed, of one cell, 

diftincl, with tranfverfe partitions. 
The Seeds are bony, globofe-compreffed, and folitary between 

the partitions. 
0^f. A fpecies of this genus is dioecious. 

The Species with usy 

G u I L A N D I N A dioica, Canadian dioiceous 
BonduCj or Nickar Tree. 

This tree is faid to rife, with an ereft ftem, to the 
height of thirty feet or more, dividing into many 
branches, covered with abluifh afh-coloured, fmooth 
bark, garniflied with large winged leaves, the lobes 
of which are ranged alternately, and are oval ftiap- 
ed, very fmooth and entire. I have lately received 
feveral feeds from Kentucky, fuppofed to be of this 
tree, where it is faid to grow plenty, and is called 
the Coffee or Mahogany tree. 



HALESIA, 



( 57 ) 



H A L E S I A. 

HALESIA, or SlLVER-BELL TREE. 
Oafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

T^HE Empalement is one leaved, very fmall, above, four- 
toothed, and permanent. 

The Cofolla is of one petal, bell'd and bellied: with the mouth 
four-lobed, obtufe and fpreading. 

The Filaments are twelve (rarely fixtcen) awl-ihaped, ere6l and 
fomewhat iliorter than the corolla. The Antherce are oblong, 
obtufe and erecl. 

The Germen is oblong and beneath. The St;^le is thread-form 
and longer than the corolla. The Stigma is (imple. 

The Seed-vejjel is a nut which is barked, oblong> narrow to- 
wards each end, four cornered with membranaceous angleSt 
and two cell'd. 

The Sseds are folitary. 

"The Species ate^ 

vi . H A L E s I A diptera. Two^winged fruited 
Hakjia. 

This grows naturally in Carolina, to the height 
of twelve or fifteen feet. The bark is beautifully 
variegated or ftreakcd, much like the ftriped Maple* 
The leaves are large and egg-fliaped, having fmooth 
footftalks. The fruit is fharp-pointed, having two 
oppofite, large wings, and two very fmall. 

2. Hal ESI A tetraptera, Four'-'winged fruited 
Halefia. 

This likcwife grows in Carolina, and has much 
the appearance of the former, except the leaves arc 
much fmaller, a little fawed on their edges and 

downy 

B 



( 58 ) 



downy underneath, with glandular footftalks. The 
flowers are produced upon the fmall branches, fome- 
times fingly, but often three or four together, upon 
pretty long footftalks ; they are bell-fliaped and pen- 
dulous, of a white colour, and are fucceeded by 
lharp-pointed fruit, having four wings. 

H A M A M E L I S. 

WITCH HAZEL. 

Clafs 4. Order 2. Tetrandria Digyiiia. 
nPHE Caljx confifts of an Involucrunij three-leaved, and three 



flowered : the two interior leaves are roundifli, lefs, and 
obtufe; the third outer one is larger and lance- fhaped. 
A double Empalement ; the exterior two leaved, lefs and 
roundilli; the interioi' four leaved and ereft,- the leaves 
oblong, obtufe and equal. 
The Corolla has four petals, which are linear, equal, very long, 
obtufe, and reflexed. 

And a Ne^ariumy of four leaf-lets, truncated, and adjoined 
to the corolla. 

The Filaments are four, linear, and fhorter than the calyx. The 

Anther(je two horned and reflexed. 
The Germen is ovate and villofe, ending in two Styles, the 

length of the Stamina. The Stigmas are headed. 
The Seed-veJJel none. 

The Seedy a nut which is ovate, half covered with the calyx^ 
obtufe and furrowed on each fide at the apex with fmall ho- 
rizontal two horned horns; with two cells and two valves. 

We have but one Species of this Genus, viz. 

H A M A M E L I s virginiana. Virginian Witch 



This (hrub grows naturally in many parts of North 
America. It hath fpreading roots, generally fend- 
ing up feveral ftalks or ftems to the height of eight 

or 




Hazel. 



( 59 ) 



or ten feet, dividing into feveral branches, furnifhed 
with oval leaves irregularly notched on their edges, 
and finooth on their upper fides, but downy under- 
neath. The footftalks of the flowers come out fing- 
ly upon the fmall branches, each generally fupport- 
ing three flowers, of an herbaceous colour, and 
making but little appearance, but remarkable for 
being in bloom late in the fall after the leaves drop 
off. 

H E P E R A. 

I V Y. 

Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

'T^HE Calyx confifls of an Involucrum of a finiple umfeel, very 
fmall and many toothed. 
And an Empalement very fmall, five toothed and fiirrounding 
the germen. 

The Corolla has five petals, oblong and fpreading, with incurved 
tops. 

The Filaments are five, awl-fhaped, eredl and the length of the 
corolla. The Anthers are bifid at the bafe, and incumbent. 

Tht Germen is top lhaped, furrounded by the receptacle'^ The 
Style is fimple and very fhort. The Sugma is fimple. 

The Seed-veJJel is a globofe berry of oee cell. 

The Seeds are five, large, on one fide gibbous, on the other 
angled. 

We have but one Species Native of Americay viz. 

H E D E R A quinquefolia. American Ivy^ or 
Virginian Creeper. 

This hath a climing ftem, attaching itfelf to any 
neighbouring fupport, and rifing often to the height 
of thirty, forty or fifty feet, fending off branches, 
furnifhed v^ith leaves compofed of five lobes joined 

at 



( 6o ) 

at their bafc, which are egg-fliaped and fawed on 
their edges, having a pretty long common footftalk. 
This has been ufed to plant againft walls and houfes 
to cover them, but the leaves falling off in winter, 
the plants make but a poor appearance at that time- 

H I P P O P H A ii. 

SEA BUCK- THORN, or SALLOW-THORN. 
Clafs 2 2. Order 4. Dioecia Tetrandria. 

nPHE flowers are Male and Female on different plants. 

The Empalement is one leaved, biparted, bivalve, entire at the 
bottom: the divifions are roundilli, obtufe, concave and 
eredl, meeting with their tops, but gaping at their fides. 

The Corolla is wanting. 

The Filaments are four, very lliort. The Anthers are oblong, 

angled, and almoft the length of the calyx. 
* The Female. 

The Empalement is one leaved, oblong- ovate, tubulous, club- 
bed, with a two cleft mouth, and deciduous. 
The Corolla none. 

The Germen is roundilli, and fmall. The ^3;/^ is fimple and 
very lliort. The Stigma thickift, oblong, ere(5t, and dotible 
the length of ^he calyx. 

The Seed-veJJel i^ a globofe berry of one cell. 

The Seed one, roxrndilli. 

There is but one Species, with us^ viz. 

HiPPOPHA^ canadienfis. Canadian Sea-Buck- 
Thorn. 

This rifes with flirubby ftalks to the height of eight 
or ten feet, fending out many irregular branches, 
having a brown bark, filvered over, and garnifhed 
with very narrow fpear-fhaped leaves, of a dark 
gretnon their upper fide, but hoary underneath, and 

reflexed; 



( 6i ) 



reflexed on their edges like the Rpfemary. The 
flowers come out from the fides of the young branch- 
es, fitting very clofe; the male growing in fmall 
clufters, but the female coming out fmgly; thefe 
open in July and make but little appearance; they 
are fucceeded by roundifh berries, which ripen in 
autumn, and are faid to be purgative. 

HYDRANGEA. 

HYDRANGEA. 
Clafs 10. Order 2. Decandria Digynia* 

'T'HE Empalement is one leaved, , five toothed, permanent, 
^ and fmall . 

The Corolla confids of five petals, equal, roundifh, and larger 
than the calyx. 

The Filaments are ten, longer than the corolla, the alternate of 
v^hich are longer. The Jntherce are roundilh and twin. 

The Germen is roundifh and beneath. The Styles are two, fhort, 
and diftant. The Stigmas are obtufe and permanent. 

The Seed'VejJel is a capfule, roundilli, twin, two beaked with 
the double ftyle, angled with many nerves, crowned with 
the calyx, two cell'd, with a tranfverfe partition, and gaping 
with a paffage between the horns. 

IhQ Seeds are numerous, angled, lliarp pointed, and very fmalL 

^here is but one Species of this Genus^ viz. 

Hyd rangea frutefcens. Virginian Shrubby 
Hydrangea. 

This hath a fpreading woody root, from which 
are produced, generally ieveral foft, pithy, ligneous 
ftalks, rifing to the height of about three feet, gar- 
nifhed at each joint with two oblong, heart-fhaped, 
pointed leaves, fawed on their edges, and having 
many veins. The flowers are produced in form of 

a CO- 



( 62 ) 



a corymbus, at the tops of the ftalks, they are of a 
white colour, and are fucceeded by fmall capfules. 

HYPERICUM. 

St. JOHN'S WORT. 
Clafs 1 8. Order 3. Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

'T'HE Empalement is five parted: the divifions are fomewhat 
^ ovate, convex, and permanent. 

The Corolla has five petals, oblong-ovate, obtufe, fpreading, 

and marked according to the motion of the fun. 
The Filaments are numerous, capillary, joined at the bafe into 

five or three parts or bodies. The Antherce are fmall. 
The Gemen is roundifli. The Styles are three (fometimes one, 

two, and five^ fimple, diftant, and the length of the ftamina. 

The Stigmas are fimple. 
The Seed'vejjel is a roundifli capfulej with cells according to 

the number of the Styles. 
The Seeds are many and oblong. 

The Species growing Jhrubby^ with us^ 

Hypericum kalmianum, Virginian Shrubby 
Hypericum. 

This grows naturally in low wet places, rifing 
with flirubby ftalks to the height of three or four 
feet, with oppdfite angular branches. The leaves 
are fniooth and fliaped like thofe of Rofemary or 
Lavender. The flowers terminate the branches in 
fmall divided clufters of three or feven flowers j they 
have each five very flendcr ftyles, and are fucceeded 
by oval, pointed capfules, filled with fmall feeds. 



ILEX. 



( 63 ) 



ILEX, 

The H L L Y - T R E E. 
Clafs 4. Order 3. Tetrandria Tetragynia. 

THE Empalement is four toothed, very frnaH and permanent. 
The Corolla confifts of one petal, four-parted and plane: 
the divifions are roundilK, concave, fpreadmg, pretty 
large, and cohering by claws. 
The Filaments are four, awl-fliaped, and fhorter than the corol- 

la. ThQAnthera are fmall. 
The Germen is roundiih. The Style none. The Stigmas are 

four and obtufe. 
The Seed-vejfel is a berry, roundifh and four cell'd. 
The Seeds are folitary, bony, oblong, obtufe, gibbous on one 

fide and angled on the other. 
Obf. The flowers are in fome fpecies male upon one plant, and 
female and hermaphrodite upon a different plane. 

The Species with iis^ are^ 

I. Ilex AquLfolivim. American Common Holly. 

This grows in Maryland, New Jerfey, &c. gene- 
rally in moill ground, rifing to the height of fifteen 
or twenty feet, with an ered ftem, covered with a. 
greyilh coloured fmooth bark, and furniihed with 
pretty many branches, which are garniflied with 
thick, hard, ever-green leaves, waved on their edges 
and indented, each point terminating in a ftiif prick- 
ly fpine. The flowers are produced upon pretty 
long footftalks, often three parted from the fides of 
the branches, of a white colour, having often five 
or fix ftamina, and the corolla divided into as many 
parts, and are fucceeded by roundiih berries, which 
when full ripe are red. Of the bark of common 
Holly is made Birdlime, which is better than that 
made of Mifletoe, 

2. Ilex 



( 64 ) 



2. Ilex CafTme. Dahoon^ or Carolinian Holly ^ 

This grows naturally in Carolina, rifing with an 
upright branching ftein to the height of eighteen or 
twenty feet. The bark of the fteni is of a brown 
colour, but that of the branches and young {hoots 
green and fmooth. The leaves are fpear-fhaped, 
above four inches long and one and a quarter broad 
toward the bafe, of a light green colour and thick 
confiftence, with their upper parts fawed on the 
edges, each ferrature ending in a fmall ftiarp fpine. 
The flowers come out in thick clufters from the fides 
of the branches, they are white and like thofe of the 
common Holly, but fmaller, and are fucceeded by 
fmall roundilli red berries, 

3. Ilex canadenfis. Canadian^ or Hedge-hog 

Holly. 

The leaves of this kind are not fo long as thofc 
of the Common Holly, but are armed with ftronger 
fpines {landing clofer together, their upper furfaces 
are alfo fet very clofe with fhort prickles, from 
whence it obtained the name of Hedge-hog Holly. 
It grows naturally in Canada. There are faid to be 
two varieties of this with variegated leaves, one of 
which is yellow, the other white. 

I T E A. 

I T E A. 

Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

nPHE Empakment is one leaved, five cleft, ere6l, fharp point- 
ed, very fmall, and permanent ; the diviljons are acute and 
coloured. 

The 



( 65 ) 



The CoroUa has five petals, lande^fliaped, long and inferted in 
the calyx. 

The Filaments are five, awl-fliaped, ere6l, the length of the co- 
rolla, and inferted into the calyx. * he Antherae are round- 
illi and incumbent. 

The Gemen is ovate. The St^le is cylindrical, permanent, and 
the length of the Stamina. ThQ Stioma is obtufe. 

The Seed-vejfel is a capfule. ovate, much longer than the calyx, 
pointed with the ftyle, with one cell and two valves, of two 
joined together, gaping at the top. 

The Seeds are numerous, very fmall, oblong, and fliining- 

Thete is but one Species of this Genus^ viz* 

Itea virginica. Virginian Itea. 

This flirub grows naturally i^i Maryland , Virginia^ 
&c. near ftreains of water, or in moift places; rifing 
to the height of eight or ten feet^ and dividing in- 
to feveral branches, which ^re garnifhed with fpear 
lhaped leaves, placed alternately, llightly fawed on 
their edges, and of a light green colour. The flow- 
ers are produced at the extremity of the fame yearns 
{hoots, in ereft fpikes of three or four inches in 
length ; they are white, and make a fine appearance 
when in bloom, which is a little before harveft time. 

J U G L A N S. 

The WALNUT-TREE. 
Clafs ^i. Order 8, Monoecia Polyandria. 

nPHE Male Female Flowers are feparate upon the fame 
tree. 

^ The Male, are difpofed in an oblong katkin. 

The Cal^x is a common katkin, on all fides imbricate-fparfed. 
and cylindrical; confifting of fcales which are uniliorous, 
fingly affixed in the exterior center to each corolla, and turn- 
ed outward. 

I The 



( 66 ) 



Thfe Corolla is fix-parted, elliptic, equal, and plane : the div{-' 
fions are fomewhat ere6l and concave, pedicell'd andinferted 
in the interior center of the corolla, ^nd rachis. 

The Filaments are many, (eighteen) very lliort. ihe Anthem 
are erect, lharp pointed,, and the length of the calyx. 

*The Female are without a katkin, two or three together, and 
fitting clofe, in the fame plant. 

The Empakmeiit is four cleft, eredt, very Ihort, crowning the 
gerinen, and vanifiiing. 

The Corolla is four parted, acute, er^ft, and a little larger than 
the calyx. 

The Germen is oval, large, and beneath. The St;^les' are two, 
very lliort. The Stigmas are very large, clubbed, reflexed, 
and torn above. 

The Seed-vejjel is a drupe, or capfule, dry, oval, large and one 
cell'd. 

The Seed is a nut very large, roundilTi, netted with furrows, 
and half four cell'd. Tho Kernel is four lobed and varioufly 
furrowed. 

The Species f or chiefly Varieties according to Wefton) 
with usy are, 

I. JuGLANS nigra. Round black Virginian Walnut. 

This tree often rifes to the height of fifty or fixty 
feet, and to three feet or more in diameter, covered 
with a dark furrowed bark, and dividing into many 
branches, furniflied with winged leaves, compofed 
of ten or twelve pair of lobes, and an odd one; 
thefe are fmooth, oblong, fliarp pointed and fawed 
>©n their edges; and upon being bruifed emit a flrong 
aromatic flavour, as doth alfo the external covering 
of the fruit. The fruit are round, their covering 
pretty fmooth, and foftifli when fully ripe. The 
nuts themfelves are hard, netted and furrowed, con- 
taining fweet oily kernel. 



2. JuGLANS 



( 67 ) 



2. JuGLANs nigra oblonga. Black oblong fruited 

Walnut. 

This tree refembles the former fo as fcarcely to be 
diftinguiflied from it, except by its fruit, which is 
oblong or oval; the fliells or coverings are rougher, 
harder, and of a deeper green colour. The timber 
of both forts is much ufed by Joiners, &c. in mak- 
ing tables, drawers, book and clock-cafes, &c. 
Coffins are alfo generally made of it. The bark, 
and outer coverings of the nuts, are ufed in dying 
wool, cloth, &c. 

There are perhaps fome other varieties of thefe, 

3. Jqglaks oblonga alba. Butter^nuty or White 

Walnut. 

This often grows to the height of twenty or thirty 
feet and to eighteen inches or more in diameter, with 
a fmooth light coloured bark. The branches are 
garniftied with leaves compofed generally of eight 
or nine pair of lobes and an odd one, which are 
villofe, oblong egg-fliaped, fliarp pointed, flightly 
ferrated, and larger than thofe of the other kinds. 
The fruit, when ripe, is villous and covered with a 
vifcid clammy fubftance, by which it almoft (ticks 
to the fingers when handled. It is long and fome- 
what pointed at the ends, and freed of its hull, or 
covering, is very rough and deeply furrowed, con- 
taining a foft, oily, fweet kernel. An extract of the 
bark of this tree affords a mild and fafe cathartic. 
The bark and fhells of the nuts dye a good brown 
f.olour, fcarcely ever fading. 



4. JUGLANS 



( 68 ) 



4. Jug LANS alba acuminata, Long^ Jharp-fruited 

Hickcry "Tree. 

This tree grows to the height of forty or fifty 
feet, and to eighteen inches or two feet in diameter. 
The leaves are generally compofed of three or four 
pair of lobes and an odd one. The nuts with their 
covers are about two inches in length and above one 
in diameter. The covers, or hulls, generally open 
into four parts, difclofing their nuts, which are 
white, hard and thick fhelPd, having feams oppo- 
fite the divifions of their hulls. Th-e kernel is fmall 
and not very fweet. 

5. JuGLANS alba minima. White ^ or Pig-nut Hickery. 

This j^enerally grows pretty large, fometimes to 
the height of eighty feet or more, and above two 
feet in diameter. The bark of young trees is fmooth, 
but when older becomes rough and furrowed. The 
leaves are generally compofed of five pair of lobes 
and an odd one, which are moftly narrower than 
thofe of many other kinds. The fruit is fmall and 
roundifli, and covered with a yery thin hufk or co- 
vering, opening in divifions. The fliell of the nut 
is alfo very thin, and eafily cracked with the teeth; 
the kernel plump and full but very bitter. The 
timber of this is not much efteemed. 

6. JuGLANs alba odorata. Balfam Hickery. 

This tree grows as large as the Pig-nut Hickery, 
and much like it in appearance. The nuts are fmall, 
round, and thin fheird. the kernel fweet. The 
branches are flender and flexible. There is, I think, 
a variety of this, with a rougher furrowed bark, 
bearing broader leaves and larger nuts, having 

thicker 



( 69 ) 

thicker outer covers, as well as inward (hells, with 
the kernel generally fmall and flirivelled. The tim- 
ber of both kinds is hard and tough, and ufed for 
axle-trees of carriages, &c. mill coggs and rounds, 
and alfo for handles, &:c. for moft implements of 
hufbandry. 

7. JoGLANs alba ovata. Shell-barked Hickery. 

This tree delights in a rich moift foil, generally 
growing by creeks and rivers, often to the height 
of feventy or eighty feet, and above two feet in 
diameter. The bark is rough and flielly or fcaly. 
The leaves are generally compofed of two pair of 
lobes and an odd one, they are narrowed towards 
the bafe, oval, and pointed at the extremity, and 
fawed on their edges. The fruit is roundifli, but 
rather flatted and indented at the ends. The outer 
cover very thick and dividing into four parts, dif- 
clofmg its nut, which is not very thick fliellM, con- 
taining fweet kernel, preferable to the other kinds. 
There are feveral varieties of this in America, fome 
with nuts as large as our common Walnuts. 

8. JuGLANS pecan. The Pecan^ or Illinois Hickery. 

This tree is faid to grow plenty in the neighbour- 
hood of the lUinois river, and other parts to the 
weftward. The young plants raifed from thefe nuts, 
much refemble our young Pig-nut Hickerys. The 
nuts are fmall and thin flielled. 



JUNIPERUS. 



( 70 ) 



J U N I P E R U S. 

The J U N I P E R TREE. 
Clafs 2 2. Order 12. Dioecia Monodelphia. 



T^HE Flowers are Male and Female on different plants. 
*TheMa/<?. 

The Calyx is a conical katkin, confining of a common rachis or 
firing, to which three flowers are placed in triple oppofition, 
the katkin terminating with the tenth : each flower has for 
its bafe a Scale which is broad, fhort, incumbent and affixed 
to the column by a little footflalk. 

The Corolla none. 

The Filaments (in the terminal floret) are three, awl-fhaped, 
and joined beneath in one body; (in the lateral florets fcarce 
manifeft.) The Anthem are three, diftinfl in the terminal 
floret, but in the lateral joined to the fcales 
The Female, 

The Empalement is three parted, very fmall, adjoining to the 
germen, and permanent. 

The Corolla has three petals, permanent, rigid and acute. 

The Germen is beneath. The Styles are three, fimple. The 
Stigmas are fimple. 

The Seed'vejjel is a berry, flefliy, roundifh, the under part mark- 
ed with three obfolete oppofite tubercles, grown from the 
calyx, the top umbilicated with three fmall teeth (formerly 
petals.) 

The Seeds arc three, fmall, oblong, and bony, convex on one 
fide, and angled on the other. 



This tree often grows to the height of fifteen or 
twenty feet, fending off many diverging branches, 
covered with leaves fomething like the Juniper, but 
much fmaller, fhorter, and iyi'^g clofer to the 
branches. The berries are fmaller than thofe of the 




The Species, with us^ are^ 



I. Juniper us virginiana. Red Cedar-Tree. 




( 71 ) 



juniper, and covered with a whitifli fubftance, eafily 
rubbing off. 

2. Juniper US caroliniana. Red Carolinian 
Cedar, 

This tree much refembles the former in fize an4 
fhape, but the under leaves have fomewhat the ap- 
pearance of Juniper, the upper, of Cyprefs or Savin« 
Tiiere are faid to be other varieties, but their differ- 
ence in appearance is fcarcely obfervable. The 
timber affords very good durable pofts for fencing, 
&c. 

K A L M I A. 

KALMIA, or AMERICAN LAUREL. 
Clafs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is five parted, fmall, and permanent : the 
fegments are fomewhat ovate, and acute. 
IhQCorollaxs of one petal, pitcher-funnel form. The tube is cy- 
lindrical and longer than the calyx. The border with a plane 
dilk, and ere6l half five cleft circumference; there are ten 
fmall neflariferous horns, prominent without, and placed 
round the corolla from where the border is raifed. 
The Filaments are ten, awl-fhaped, fomewhat fpreading, a lit- 
tle iTiorter than the corolla, and inferted into its bafe. The 
Antherce are fimple. 
The Germen is roundilli. The Sfjle is thread form, longer than 

the corolla, and declined. The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed-veJJel is roundiili, depreffed, five cell'd and five valv'd. 
The Seeds are numerous. 

^The Species are^ 



I. Kalmia 



( 72 ) 



1. K A L M I A anguftifolia. Narrow leaved 

Kalmia. 

This kind delights in moift or fwampy places, and 
rifes to the height of two feet or more. The leaves 
are of a light green colour, and fometimes grow to 
the fize of an inch and a half in length and half an 
inch in breadth, of an oval fhape, and entire. The 
flowers come out in clufters on every fide of the 
ftalks, towards their extremities, and are of a beau- 
tiful red colour. This has been called Glaucous 
leaved Kalmia. 

2. Kalmia latifolia. Broad leaved Kalmia. 

This beautiful flowering flirub rifes often to the 
height of fix or eight feet and fometimes to ten or 
twelve, covered with a lightifli coloured rough bark, 
and generally growing crooked. The leaves are of 
a dark green colour, thick confiflience, lance-fliaped 
and entire, in general about three inches in length 
and one in breadth. The flowers are produced in 
clufters at the ends of the branches and are variegat- 
ed with red when firft opening, but change to a 
whiter colour when expanded. There are very few 
flowering flirubs comparable to this when in bloom. 
The leaves are noxious to oxen and flieep, yet the 
deer eat them with impunity. 

L A U R U S. 

The B A Y - T R E E. 
Clafs 9. Order i. Enneandria Monogyniae 

THE EmpaLement is wanting. 
The Corolla has fix petals, ovate, fharp pointed, contavCy 
ajiid ere61: : the alternate exterior. 

And 



( 73 ) 



And a Ndiariumy confining of three tubercles, ftarp point- 
ed, coloured, and ending in two briftles, Handing round 
the germen. 

The Filaments are nine, fhorter than the corolla, comprelTed, 
obtufe and three-fold in each order. The A'ltherce are ad- 
joined on each fide to the margin of the filaments. 
There are two roundilli fmall Glands affixed by very fliort 

footfl:alks, to each filament of the inward order, near the 

bafe. 

The Germen is fomewhat ovate. ThQ Style is fimple, equal and 
the length of the fi:amina. The Stigma Is obtufe and oblique. 

The Seed-vejjel is a drupe, oval, iliarp pointed, and one cell'd, 
contained in the calyx. 

The Seed is a nut of a iTiarp pointed egg-fliape, with a kernel 
of the fame form. 

Ohf The flowers are fometimes male and female upon differ- 
ent trees. 

The Species, with us^ are^ 

1. Laurus Benzoin. The Benjamin-Tree^ or 

Spice-Wood. 

This fhrub grows naturally in moifl: places, and 
rifes often to the height of eight or ten feet, divid- 
ing into feveral branches. The leaves are annual, 
oval (haped and entire. The flowers are produced 
from the fides of the branches upon fliort footfl:alks, 
often dividing and fufl:aining from one, to four or 
five flowers, of a greenifti yellow colour; which are 
fucceeded by oval, oblong berries, of a red colour 
when ripe, but changing to black. The bark, ber- 
ries, &c. have a flirong aromatic fmell, much like 
that of Benzoin, and indeed, by fome, is allowed 
to be the tfee, from whence it is produced. 

2. Laurus Borbonia. Red-Jialked Carolinian 

Bay-Tree. 

This grows naturally in Carolina, and rifes with a 
fliraight trunk to a confiderable height, efpecially 

K near 



( 74 ) 

near the fea-coaft. The leaves are fharp poirtted and 
much longer than thoie of the European Bay; a 
little wooly underneath, veined tranfverfely, and 
fomewhat reflexed on their edges. The male trees 
produce their flowers in long bunches from the wings 
of the leaves ; the female, in loofe bunches, Hand- 
ing upon long red footftalks, and are fucceeded by 
blue berries fitting in red cups. 

The wood is of a very fine grain, proper for ca- 
binet making and other ornamental furniture. It 
alfo dies a beautiful black colour. 

3. Laurus genicuiata. Carolinian Spice Wood 
Tree. 

This kind fo much refembles the Benzoin as to 
require no further defcription, except in having ber- 
ries not of fo red a colour. 

4. Laurus SafTafras. The Sajfafras-Tree. 

This tree rifes fometimes to the height of twenty 
or thirty feet, and to twelve or fifteen inches in di- 
ameter, but is commonly of much lower growth. 
The bark of the young flioots is fmooth and green, 
but of the old trunks rough, furrow^ed and of a 
lightilh colour. It is divided towards the top into 
many branches, generally crooked, furnirhed with 
leaves different in form and fize, fome being oval 
and entire, others two or three lobed and of five 
or fix inches in length, and nearly as much in width; 
of a light green colour and placed alternately upon 
pretty long footftalks. The flowers are produced 
at the extremity of the former year's (hoots upon 
long panicled footftalks, and are generally male and 
female upon different trees. The female are fuc- 
ceeded by oblong, oval berries, of a bluifli colour 

when 



( 75 ) 



when ripe, fitting in red cups, having red footftalks. 
The roots and wood have been long ufed as a fudo- 
rific, but the bark of the root is by much the ftrong- 
eft, yielding a confiderable quantity of hot, aromat- 
ic oil; and when powdered and joined with other 
febrifuges, has been given with fuccefs in intennit- 
tents, &c, Alfo ufed as a tea, is faid to promote 
obftrufted menfes ; but has been blamed for occafi- 
oning the head-ach. 

LEDUM. 

MARSH CISTUS, or WILD ROSEMARY. 
Clafs 10. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, very fmall, and five-tcK)th- 
ed. 

The Corolla confifts of five petals, ovate, concave, and fpread- 

The Filaments are ten, thread-form, fpreading and the length 

of the corolla. The Antherce are oblong. 
The Germen Is roundifh. The Style thread-form and the length 

of the ftamina. The Stigma is obtufe. 
The Seed'veJJel is a capfule, roundilli, five-cell'd and gaping in 

five parts at the top. 
The Seeds are numerous, oblong, narrow, acute each way and 

very flender. 

^ The Species with us, but one, viz. 

Ledum thymifolium. Thyme leaved Marjh 
Cijliis. 

This grows naturally in the Jerfeys, in low, moift 
places. It is a fmall ever-green fhrub, fcarcely rif- 
ing above eighteen inches or two feet in height and 
divided into feveral branches. The leaves are very 
fmill, entire, of an oblong oval (hape, and thick 

confidence. 



( 76 ) 



corififtencc, placed clofe, alternately, and thick up^ 
on the branches. The flowers terminate the ftalks 
in Ihort leafFy bunches, coming out fmgly at the 
bofom of the leaves upon pretty long footftalks; 
they are fmall and white but make a fine appearance 
when in bloom. This has generally been called 
Thyme-leaved Kalmia. 

L I QU I D A M B A R, 

LIQUIDAMBAR, or SWEET GUM-TREE. 

Clafs 2I5 Order 8. Monoecia Polyandria, 

* ' I "HE Male Flowers are numerous in a conical, long, looie 
Catkin. 

The Calyx is a common Involucrum of four leaves ; which are 

ovate, concave, and falling ; the alternate lliorter. 
The Corolla none. 

The Filaments are numerous, and very fliort, in a body, plane 
on one fide and convex on the other. The Antherce are erpft, 
twin, four furrowed, and two cell'd. 

* The Female flowers are colle6ted in a globe at the bafe of the 
male fpikes. 

The Calyx is an Involucrum as in the male, but double. 

The Proper Empalement is beli-fliape, angled, warty, ^md ma^ 
ny joined together. 
The Corolla none. 

The Germen is oblong and adjoined to the empalement. The 
Styles are two, awl-lliaped. The Stigmas joined to thefe ai;^ 
the length of the ftyle, recurved and downy. 

The Seed-veffel confifts of as many capfules as empalements, 
which are ovate, oblong, lliarp pointed, with one cell and 
two valves at top; joined in a ligneous globe. 

The Seeds are few, (one or two) oblong, pointed and fliining; 
mixed with many branny corpufcles. 

The Species ivith iis^ are^ 



I. Liquid AMBA a 



( 77 ) 



1. LlQUlDitMBAR Styraciflua. Maple-leaved 

Liquidambar-Tree^ or Sweet Gum. 

This tree grows naturally in low clayey ground, 
rifing with a ftraight trunk to the height of forty 
feet or raore, fending off many branches, forming 
a pyramidal head. The leaves are angular, fome- 
wha^ rcfembiing thofe of Maple, having five and 
often feven, pomted, ferrated, fpreading lobes; and 
are ot a dark green colour. They have a ftrong, 
f'vveet, glutinous fubftance, exuding through theii^ 
pores in warm weather, rendering them clammy to 
the touch. The flowers are produced early in the 
fpring, and are fucceeded by globular feed-veffels, 
compofed of many capfules joined at the bafe, but 
terminating in long foftifh fpines or points, and con- 
taining each one or two oblong comprefled, winged 
feed^, with a great numbel' of furfuraceoiis particles. 

2. LiCiiJiDAMBAR afplcuifolia. Spleen-wori'leavcd 

GaUy or Shrubby Szveet Fern. 

This is a fmall (hrub, growing naturally upon dry 
flaty ridges, and feldom rifing above three feet high, 
dividing into feveral branches, furnifhed with many 
oblong leaves, alternately fituated, refc.mbling thofe 
of Spleen Wort ; of a dark green colour, hairy un- 
derneath and fitting clofe to the ftalks. The male 
katkins are produced lying clofe to the fmall branch- 
es near their ends. The female flowers are in fmall 
headg a little beneath them, becoming fmall burs, 
generally containing two or more oblong fmooth 
feeds. An infufion of the leaves has been ufed as an 
aftringent in Diarrhseas, &c. 

LIRIODENPRUM. 



( 78 ) 



L I R I O D E N D R U M. . 

The T U L I P - T R E E. 

Clafs 13. Order 7. Polyandria Polygynia. 

nPHE Cal^x confifts of a proper Involucrum of two leaves; 
^ which are triangular, plane and deciduous. 

And an Empalement of three leaves; oblong, concave, 
fpreading, petal-form, and deciduous. 
The Corolla has fix ('often more) petals, bell'd: the petals are 

fpatuled, oblong, obtufe and variegated. 
The Filaments are numerous, iliorter than the corolla, linear, 
and inferted in the receptacle. The AnthertB are linear, and 
adjoined longitudinally to the fides of the filaments. 
The Germen are numerous, placed in a cone. The St^le none. 

The Stigmas globofe. 
The Seed-veJJTel tone. The feeds are imbricated in a cone like 
body. 

The Seeds are numerous, ending in a lanced fcale; near the 
bafe of the fcale, fending off from the interior fide, an acute 
angle, compretfed at the bafe and acute, by which they are 
joined to the fpindle^Oiaped receptacle. 

The Species with us^ are, 

LiRiopENDRUM Tulipifera, Virginian Tulip" 

This often grows to the fize of a large tree, of 
feventy or eighty feet in height and above four feet 
in diameter. The bark of young trees is fmooth, 
but as they grow old it becomes furrowed, their 
lower branches alfo falling off. The young trees 
fend off many branches, almoft from the ground 
upward, garnifned with broad fmooth leaves, heart- 
fliaped at the bafe, but end-bitten, or cut, at the ex- 
tremity, having two or three pointed Jobes, on each 
fide the midrib ; of a dark green colour on the upper 

fide. 



( 79 ) 



fide, but lighter and veined underneath; with pretty- 
long footftalks. The flowers are produced at the 
extremity of the branches in form of a Tulip, com- 
pofed of fix or feven petals, or fometimes more, 
greenilh coloured towards the tops, but marked 
tranfverfely with red, towards the claws; which are 
glandular and honey-bearing. The young trees 
make a beautiful appearance, efpecially when in flow- 
er. We have two kinds of Tulip trees, viz. Yellow 
and White, their difference eafily diftinguifhable by 
the wood or timber, but perhaps not otherwife. The 
Yellow is foft and brittle, and much ufed for boards, 
heels for flioes, &c. alfo turned into bowls, trench- 
ers, &c. The whil;e is heavy, tough, and hard, and 
likewife fayed into joifts, boards, &c. for building. 
The bark of the root is ufed as an ingredient in 
bitters, &c. 

L O N I C E R A. 

HONEYSUCKLE, or WOODBINE. 
Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 




HE Empalement is five parted, above and fmall. 
The Corolla Is of one petal and tubuloiis. The tube ob- 



long and gibbofe. The border five-parted; the divifi- 
ons revolute, and one deeper feparated than the reft. 
The Filaments are five, awl ihaped and nearly the length of the 

corolla. The Antherce are oblong. 
The Germen is roundilli and beneath. The is thread-form 
and the length of the corolla. The Stigma is obtufe-headed. 
The Seed-veJJel is a berry, umbilicated and two cell'd. 
The Seeds are roundilh and comprefled. 

The Species, with us^ ( according to Linnseus'j ar- 
rangement) are divided as follozvs^ into 



Honeyfuckles 



( 80 ) 



* Honeyfuckles with a trailing Jialk. 

1. LoNiCERA caroliniana. Caroitntan fearkt 

Trumpet-jlovoertd Honeyfiickle. 

This is a variety of the following, only differing 
in having fmaller leaves and flowers. 

2. LoNiCERA virginiana. Virginian fcarlet Honey^ 

fuckle. 

This hath a fhrubby trailing ftalk, which required 
fupport, and appears much like the common Honey- 
fuckle, but the (hoots are weaker. The inferior 
leaves are inverfe egg-fhaped, of a deep green co- 
lour on their upper fides, but whitifli underneath, 
fitting clofe to the branches; but thofe near the ends 
of the branches, are joined, forming fometimes a 
large fomewhat quadrangular leaf, but moftly a 
fmaller concave oval one. The flowers are produced 
in whorls upon a long naked ftalk terminating the 
branches, having long fcarlet tubes with fhort bor- 
ders. The lower leaves in warm fituations are ever- 
green. 

3. LoNiCERA fempervirens. Ever-green Honeyfuckle. 

This is faid to grow in Virginia, with ftron^ 
branches, covered with a purple bark, and garnifh- 
ed with lucid green leaves, continuing their verdure 
all the year. The flowers are produced in manner 
of the former, of a bright red on their outfides and 
yeliow within, and continuing in fucceffion from 
June till autumn. 



* * Dwarf 



{ 8i ) 



^ * Dwarf Cherries with biflorous fooijlalks* 

4. LoNicERA canadenfis. Canadian dwarf-cherry 

Honeyjuckle. 

(Bartram's Catalogue.) 

This is a native of Canada, rifing with an ereft 
flirubby ftalk to the height of about five feet. The 
leaves are oval fhaped, entire, of a very thin tex- 
ture and lucid green colour. The flowers terminate 
the branches, fitting two upon each footftalk, of a 
pale yellow colour, fiireaked with purple, and ap- 
pearing pretty early in the fpring. 

* * * With an ered Jialk^ and multiflorous footflatks. 

5. LoNiCERA Diervilla. Tellow flowering Dier^illa. 

This hath fleilder flirubby flialks, feldom rifing 
above two feet and a half high, and generally lean- 
ing; furniflied with fomewhat heart-fliaped, oblong, 
iharp.poin^ed leaves, flightly fawed on their edges, 
placed oppofite, and fitting clofe to the fl:alks. The 
flowers are produced at the extremity and fometimes 
from the fides of the branches, generally two or 
three together, upon fliort footfl:alks ; they are of a 
cream colour, the inferior fcgment of the flower 
fomewhat larger and yellower than the others; they 
are fucceeded by oblong capfules, containing fmall 
feeds. This grows mofl: natural upon mountains, 
and fpreads much by its creeping roots. 

6. LoNiCERA marylandica. Maryland fcarlet Lorn- 

cera. 

This, it is faid, grows in Maryland with an tip- 
right fl:alk, furniflied with ovate, oblong, fliarp- 

L pointed 



( 82 ) 



pointed leaves, which are diftinQ: and fit clofe to the 
ftalks. The flowers are produced in erect fpikes of 
a fcarlet colour. 

7. LoNichRA Symphoficarpos, Indian Currants^ 
or St. Peter's IVort. 

This hath a fhrubby ftalk, 'which rifes from four 
to five feet high and fpreads into many flender branch- 
es, garnifhed with oval entire leaves, fomewhat 
hairy and placed oppofite upon fliort footftallks. 
The flowers are faiall and of an herbaceous colour, 
and are produced upon fliort, common peduncles, 
or footfl:alks, w^hich are placed oppofite a conderable 
difliance along, and tertninating the branches ; upon 
which they are fet very clofe in whorls, or rather in 
two oppofite rows. A few of thefe are fucceeded 
by reddifii, deprcflTed, hollow and fpongy berries ; 
ripening very late, and each generally containing 
two fmall round compreflfed feeds. This often fends 
off" a few weak trailing branches lying upon the 
ground and taking root, by which it may be eafily 
propagated. 

MAGNOLIA. 

The LAUREL-LEAVED TULIP-TREE. 
Clafs 13. Order 7. Polyandria Polygynia. 

'^F'HE is three leaved: the leaves ovate, concave, 

petal form and deciduous. 

The Corolla has nine petals, oblong, concave, obtufe, and nar- 
rower at the bafe. 

The Filaments are numerous, {hort, lliarp pointed, and com- 
prefTed ; inferted beneath the germen in the common recep- 
tacle of the ftyles. The Anthem are linear and adjoined on 
each fide to the margin of the filaments. 

The 



( 83 ) 



The Germen are numerous, ovate-oblong, covering the clubbed 
receptacle. The Stales are recurved, contorted and very 
ihort. The Stigmas ^xq from one end of the ftyle to the 
other, and villofe. 

The Seed-vejjel is an ovate cone, covered with capfiiles^ which 
are comprefTed, roundiili, fcarce imbricated, crowded, acute, 
one cell'd, two vaiv'd, feffile, gaping outward and perma- 
nent. 

The Seeds are folitary, roundiil>, berried, and hanging by a 
thread from the bofom of each fcaie of the cone. 

The Species an, 

1. Magnolia acuminata. Long leaved Mountain 

Magnolia, or Cucumber Tree. 

This tree grows fometimes to the height of thirty 
or forty feet, and to eighteen inches or more in di- 
ameter; dividing into leveral branches towards the 
top, garnifhed with large, oblong, (harp-pointed 
leaves. The flowers come out early in the fpring 
and are compofed of twelve large bluifli coloured 
petals. The feed-veffels are about three inches long, 
fomewhat refembhng a fmall Cucumber; from whence 
the inhabitants whpfe it grows natural, call it the 
^^ucumber-tree. 

2. Magnolia glauca. Small Magnolia^ or Swamp 

Sqffafras. 

This grows naturally in low, moift, or fwampy 
ground, often to the height of fifteen or twenty 
feet; covered with a whitiHi foiooth bark, and di- 
viding into feveral branches; furniihed with entire, 
oblong, oval leaves, of a dark green on their upper 
furface, but whitifh and a little hairy undcrne,ath. 
The flowers are produced at the ends of the branch- 
es, compofed of fix concave, white petal,s, of an 
agreeable fmell; and arc fucceedcd by oyal, or fome- 

what 



( H ) 

what conical feed-veffels, of an inch or more in length 
and three fourths of an inch in diameter ; compofed 
of many capfules, which open and difcharge their 
feeds when ripe, hanging by flender white threads, 
of a red colour, and near theTize of a fmall bean* 
The feeds and bark have been ufed with fome fuc- 
cefs in the cure of Rheumatifm, &c. 

3. Magnolia grandiflora. Ever-green Laurel-leav^ 
ed Tulip 'Tree. 

This grows naturally in Florida and Sbuth Caroli* 
na, iometimes to the height of eighty feet or more, 
with a ftraight trunk of two feet or more in diame- 
ter J having a regular head. The leaves are ever- 
green, of a thick confiftence, pretty large, oblong, 
pointed, and entire: of a lucid green on the upper 
fide, and fometimes of a rulTet, or buff colour on 
the under. The flowers are produced at the ends 
of the branches; they are very large, and compofed 
of eight or ten oblong white petals, narrowed to- 
wards the bafe, but broad, rounded, and a little 
waved at their extremities- They are fucceeded by 
oblong, conical fced-veflels, difclofing their feeds 
after the manner of the other fpecies. This is allow- 
ed to be one of the moft beautiful ever-green trees 
yet known, but is impatient of cold, 

4. Magnolia tripetala. The Umbrella Tree. 

This grows pretty frequent in Ciarolina, and fomc 
parts of Pennfylvania; ufually to the height of fix- 
teen or twenty feet, with a flender trunk, covered 
with a fmooth bark, and dividing into feveral branch- 
es. The leaves are very large and entire, often from 
twelve to fifteen inches or more in length, and five or 
fix in width, narrowing to a point at each extremity, 

placed 



( 85 ) 



placed at the ends of the branches in a circular man- 
ner, fomewhat refenibling an umbrella ; from whence 
it obtained its name. The flowers are compofed of. 
ten, or eleven, large, oblong, white petals, the 
exterior ones hanging down; and are fucceeded by 
oblong, conical feed-veflels, between three and four 
inches in length, and about one and a half in diame- 
ter, erowing reddilh anfl difclofmg their feeds, when 
ripe, after the fame manner of the others. There 
are faid to be two other fpecies in the fouthern ftates. 

M E N 1 S P E R M U M. 

MOONSEED. 

Clafs 22. Order lo. Dioecia Decandria. 

'T^HE Flowers are Male and Female upon feparate plants. 
^ The Male. 

The Einpalement is two leaved : the leaves are linear and fliort. 

The Corolla has four exterior petals, which are ovate, fpreading 
and equal. And eight interior leffer ones, ovate and concave. 

The Filaments are fixteen (or more) cylindrical and rather long- 
er than the corolla. The Antlierce are terminal, very lliort^ 
and obtufe four lobed. 

* The Female, on a different plant. 

The Einpalement as in the Male. 

The Corolla as the Male. ' 

The Filaynents eight, like the male. The Antherce are pellucid 
and barren. 

The Gcrmen are two, ovate, incurved, winking and pedicelPd. 

The Styles are folitary, very iliort and recurved. The Stig* 

raas are bifid and obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjels are two berries, roundilli-kidney form and one 

ccU'd. 

The Seeds are folitary, large, and kidney form, or fomewhat 

orbicular and comprelTed. 
OhJ. The Canadian has an Empalement and Corolla of fix leaves, 

alfo f!X (lamina and three ftyles. 



The 



( 86 ) 



The Species with usj are^ 

1. Menispermuivi canadenfe. Canadian Moon^ 

Jeed. 

This hath a thick, ligneous root, fending up ma- 
ny twining ftalks, twifting themfelves round the 
neighbouring trees for fupport, becoming woody, 
and rifmg to the height of ten or fifteen feet. Thefe 
are furniihed with large, fmooth, roundifh, angled 
leaves, haying pretty long footftalks placed on their 
under fides, making a hollow, or appearance of a 
navel on the upper fide. The flowers come out in 
loofe bunches from the fides of the ftalks; they are 
fmall, of an herbaceous colour, and compofed of fix 
oblong petals, fix fhort ftamina, and three ftyles 
arifing from as many germen ; which become three 
channelled berries, each containing one fomewhat 
circular comprelTed feed. 

2. M E N I s p E R M u M carolinum. Carolinian 

Moonfeed. 

This is much fmaller and weaker than the othel:, 
fcarcely becoming fhrubby. The leaves are fmaller, 
entire, heart-lhaped, and villous underneath. 

3.. Menispermum virginicum. Virginian 
Moonjeed. 

This much refembles the Canadian kind, the 
leaves are target-form, heart-fhaped and lobed. 



MESPILUS. 



( 87 ) 



M E S P I L U S. 

The M E D L A R . T R E E. 

Clafs 12. Order 4. Icofandria Peritagynia. 

'X'HE Empalementh one leaved, concave-fpreading, five tooth- 

ed, and permanent. 
The Corolla has five petals, roundifli, concave, and inferted in 
the calyx. 

The Filaments are twenty, awl fh aped and inferted in the calyx. 

The Antherce are fimple. 
The Germen is beneath. The Stymies are five, (often lefs) fimplo^ 

and erea. The Stigmas are headed. 
The Seed-veJJel is a berry, globofe, umbilicated, and covered 

with the calyx, but fomewhat perforated at the apex. 
The Seeds are five, bony and gibbous. 

The Species, with usy are^ 

* Armed with "Thorns 

i. Mespilus coccinea. Cock/pw^' Hawthorn. 

This rifes generally to the height of ten or twelve 
feet, with a pretty ftrong ftem, dividing into feveral 
branches, which are armed with ftrong thorns, bent 
downwards like a cock's fpur. The leaves are fome- 
what oval, but fpreading into angles, fawed on their 
edges, and fmooth. The flowers come out at the 
extremities and fides of the branches in umbels; 
they are pretty large and are fucceeded by fruit near- 
ly as large as a fmall cherry and of a fine red colour 
when ripe. 

There is a variety of this without thorns, with 
leaves deeper fawed on their edges, and not fo deep- 
ly veined, otherwife of the fame growth and ap- 
pearance. 

2. Mespilus 



( 88 ) 



2. Mespilus Crus galli. Pear leaved Thorn. 

This rifes \^ith a ftronjf ftem to the height of fif- 
teen or twenty feet, fending off many long ^ and of- 
ten nearly horizontal) branches, armed with long, 
fliarp thorns. The leaves are of an oblong, oval 
fliape, or often narrowed towards the bafe, fawed 
on their edges, fmooth, and of a deep, (hining green 
colour, and thick confiftemce. The flowers come 
out late, and are produced in fmall clufters at the 
ends of the branches. The fruit are of a middling 
iize and of a dark oY dirty reddifli colour. 

Obf. The flowers have frequently but one fl:yle. 

3. Mespilus cnneiformis. Wedge leaved MeJ- 

pilus. 

This grows often to the height of twenty feet or 
more, with a fl:rong fl:em of five or fix inches in di- 
ameter, covered with a dark rough bark, dividing 
into many branches, and armed with long fliarp 
thorns. The leaves are fmooth, wedge, or inverfe- 
egg-fliaped, and pointed ; flightly and fomewhat 
doubly ferrated towards their extremities, of a fliin- 
ing green colour on their upper furface and veined 
with oblique parallel veins. The flowers are pro- 
duced in fmall cluflers at the ends of the branches 
and are fucceeded by middle fized reddifll fruit. 

4. Mespilus Azarolus major. Great Azarole^ 

or Havothorn. 

This kind frequently rifes to the height of twelve 
or fifteen feet, with a fl:rong fl:em covered with a 
lightifli rough bark, dividing irto many branches, 
and armed with many long thorns. The leaves are 

larger 



( 8g ) 

larger than thofe of the other kinds, fomewhat egg- 
Ihaped, but toothed or angled, fawed on their edges, 
and much veined. The flowers are produced in 
umbels at the extremity of the branches and are 
fuccceded b j large fruit, of a dark red colour. 

5^ Mespilus Azarolus minor. Smaller Aza-- 
rolcy or Hawthorn. 

This has much the appearance of the laft, but is 
fmaller in growth^ leaves and fruit. 

6. Mespilus Oxyacantha aurea. Tellouu ber-- 
ried Hanvthorn. 

This rifes to the height of fix or eight feet, di- 
viding into feveral branches and armed with fharp 
thorns. The leaves are fomewhat egg-fliaped, but 
acutely toothed and fawed on their edges. The 
Bowers are produced aj^ in the other kinds and are 
fucceeded by middling fized fruit, of a grecnilh yel- 
low colour when ripe. 

. 7. Mespilus apiifolia. Virginian Parjley Uav-^ 
ed Mejpilus. 

This is generally of low growth, rifing perhaps 
to the height of five fcr fix feet, and armed with a 
few fliarp thorns. The leaves are fnjall, ihining and 
much cut or divided on their edges. The fruit are 
fmall and red coIoure(^. 

Withom 



( 90 ) 



Without l^harns. 

8. Mespilus nivea. Early ripe^ Efculent 

fruited Medlar^ or wild Service. 

This rifes frequently to the height of fifteen or 
twenty feet, dividing into feveral branches, which 
are without thorns, and covered with a fmooth, 
whitifli, fpotted bark. The leaves are of an oblong 
oval; pointed, flightly and acutely ferrated, hairy 
and whitifh at their firft appearance, but becoming 
fmooth and of a dark green, cfpecially upon their 
upper fides. The flowers are produced from the 
fides of the fmall branches in loofe bunches or pa- 
nicles, of a fnowy white colour, and are fucceeded 
by fruit near the fize of a Goole-berry, which arc 
foft, fucculent, fweet tafted, and purplifli coloured 
when ripe. The flowers of this come out before the 
leaves are expanded, perfeftly white, and thick fet 
upon the branches, making a fine appearance. The 
fruit is ripe in June, pretty large and of an agreea- 
ble tafte. There is a variety of this of fmaller 
growth, but of the fame appearance. 

9. Mespilus prunifolia. Plumb leaved Medlar. 

This grows naturally in moid places rifing with 
flendcr ftems to the height of fix or eight feet, di- 
viding into but few branches and without thorns. 
The leaves are invcrfe egg-fliaped, pointed, flightly 
ferrated, of a dark green on their upper furface, 
but lighter and downy underneath. The flowers 
are produced at the ex6»remity of the branches in 
clufliers, and are fucceeded by fmall fruit of a dark 
purplifli colour when ripe. 

There 



( 91 ) 

There is a variety of this, generally rifing but to 
the height of iwo or three feet. The fruit are 
fomewhat larger and of the fame colour, but other- 
wife much refembling the other. 

10. Mespilus canadenfis. Dwarf red fruit- 
ed Medlar. 

This rifes to the height of four or five feet, with 
flender fmooth ftems, much refembling the laft de- 
fcribed, except in having fruit of a red colour when 
ripe. There is alfo a variety of this of fmaller 
growth, which produces fruit of a beautiful red co- 
lour. 

Obf. The charadlers ot the Crataegus and Mefpi- 
lus differ fo immaterially that, I fliould fuppofe, they 
might be reduced to one Genus, with much greater 
propriety than the Beech and Chefnut. They are 
Genera in which much confufion prevails amongft 
Botanical writers, fome claffing moft of the Species 
under the Cratse^us, others the fame Species under 
the Mefpilus ; neither is it eafy to determine to which 
they, with moft propriety, belong. I have frequent- 
ly obferved in fome Species from one to three ftyles, 
in others from three to five, but not having obferved 
any to be conftant with two, agreeably to the cha- 
racter of the Crataegus, have ranged none under 
that Genus. We have, native of thefe ftates, feve- 
ral Species of Mefpilus, and a great number of Va^ 
rieties, which, until better difcriminated and afcer- 
tained, can never be defcribed with any degree of 
accuracy. 



MITCHELLA. 



( 92 ) 



M I T C H E L L A. 

MITCHELL A. 

Clafs 4. Order i . Tetrandria Monogynia. 

'T'HE Flowers are twin, or two fitting upon the fame bud; 
and each having an Empalement, four parted, ered, per- 
manent and above. 
A Corolla of one petal, funnel form. The tube cylindrical; the 

border four-parted, fpreading and hairy within. 
And four Filaments, thread-form, ere6l, and within the bofom 

of the corolla. With Antherce oblong, and acute. 
The Germen is twin, orbiculate, common to both, and beneath. 

The H^les are one in each flower, thread-form and the length 

of the corolla. The Stigmas are four, oblong. 
The ^'ieed-vejjel is a berry, two parted and globofe. 
The Seeds are four, comprefled and callous. 

There is but one Species of this Genus^ viz. 

MiTCHELLA repens. Creeping evergreen 
Mitchella. 

This is a fmall plant, growing upon moffy, north- 
ern, fliaded banks, with flender fhrubby ftalks, ly- 
ing clofe to the ground, and putting out roots at the 
joints. The leaves are ever-green, of a thick con- 
fiftence, obtufely egg-fhaped, and entire; they are 
placed oppofite and thick upon the branches, with 
fliort footftalks, and are often marked longitudinally 
with a whitifli vein. The flowers are produced at 
the bofom of the leaves, they are double, or two 
arifmg from one bud, of a white colour, and are 
iucceeded by fmall roundifh red berries. 



MORUS, 



( 93 ) 



M O R U S. 

The M U L B E R R Y - T R E E. 
Clafs 21. Order 4. Monoecia Tetrandria^ 

"^npHE Male Flowers are difpofed in Katkins. 
^ J he Empalement is four parted; the leaves ovate and 
concave. 
The Corvlia none. 

The F'. 'iiments are four, awl-fhaped, erefl, longer than the 

calyx, aud one within each leaf of the flower cup. The 

A'the-'ce are (imple. 
* The Female Flowers are colledled, either in the fame, or a 

different plant from the male. 
The Empalement is four leaved : the leaves are roundilTi, obtufe, 

permanent, the two oppofite exterior incumbent. 
The Corolla none. 

The Germen is heart- fliaped. The Styles are two, awl-fliaped, 
long, reflexed, and rough. The Stigmas are fimple. 

The Seed-vejjel none. The Empalements becoming flelliy fuc- 
culent berries, jointly forming an oblong rough fruit. 

The SeedSy one in each berry, ovate acute. 

We have but one Species, nalive with us^ viz. 

MoRUS rubra. Large-leaved Virginian Mul- 
berry Tree. 

Tiiis grows common in many parts of North- 
America, to the height of twenty or thirty feet, and 
with a trunk from twelve to eighteen inches or mort: 
in diameter; dividing into many branches, which 
are garnifhed with large, rough, heart-fhaped, ob- 
long, pointed leaves; fawed on their edges, and 
fometimes with others largely and deeply divided in- 
to two, three, or more pointed lobes. The leaves 
of male trees are generally largeft. The fruit is 
large, of a dark purphfti colouv when ripe, very fuc- 

culent 



( 94 ) 



culent and of an agreeable tafte. The timber affords 
very durable ports, for fencing, &c. As our Mul- 
berry has been found, upon trial, to anfwer well for 
the purpofe of raifing filk worms, and growing fpon- 
taneoufly and plentifully in many parts of thefe 
flatus; it is prefumed, many of our countrymen 
might profitably apply their attention to the culture 
of filk. 

M Y R I C A. 

CANDLEBERRY MYRTLE. 
Clafs 22. Order 5, Dioecia Tetrandria. 

TTHE Flowers are Male and Female on different plants. 
^ThQMale. 

The CzUyx is a Katkin ovate-oblong, loofe, imbricated on all 
fides, and confifting of Scales, which are one flowered, 
moon-fliape, obtufely pointed, and concave. 

The CoroUa none. 

The Filaments are four, (rarely fix) thread-form, fliort, and 
ereft. The Anthem are large and twin, with two-cleft lobes. 
* The Female, 

The Cal'jx and Corolla as in the male. 

The Germen is fomewhat ovate. The Styles are two, thread- 
form and longer than the calyx. The Stigmas are fimple. 

The Seed'vejfel is a berry, of one cell. 

The Seed is one. 

Obfc The Gale has four (lamina: the Berry comprcffed at 

the apex, and three lobed : the cerifera has fix ftamina ; the 

berry fucculent and roundifh. 

The Species with us^ are^ 

I. My RICA cerifera. Candleberry Myrtle. 

This grows naturally upon low boggy lands, rif- 
ing with many ftrong fhrubby ftalks, to the height 
of fix or eight feetj fending out feveral branches, 

which 



( 95 ) 

which arc furnifhed with ftifE fpear-fhaped leaves, a 
little fawed towards their extremities, of a yellow- 
illi lucid green on their upper fides but paler under- 
neath, having very fhort footftalks, and of a grate- 
ful odour when bruifcd. The katkins come out on 
different plants from the berries, and are about an 
inch long, (landing ereft. The female flowers come 
out on the fides of the branches in long bunches, 
and are fucceeded by fmall roundifti berries, covered 
with a mealy fubftance, and affording a kind of 
green wax, which is fometimes ufed in making can- 
dles. 

2. My RICA cerifera humilis. Dwarf Candleberry 
Myrtle. 

This is a variety of the former kind, differing 
from it in being of a lower growth, the branches 
not fo ftrong, and covered with a greyifh bark. The 
leaves arc alfo fliorter and broader, and more faw* 
ed on their edges. The berries afford a wax like 
the others. 

3. Myrica Gale. American Bog Gale. 

This alfo grows naturally in bogs and f^vamps, 
rifing with fhrubby ftalks to the height of two or 
three feet, garnifhed with lance-fliaped leaves, fmooth 
and a little fawed towards their points. The berries 
are dry, compreffed at the apex and three lobed, 

N Y S S A. 

The T U P E L O - T R E E, 

Glafs 23, Order Polygamia Dioecia. 

'Y'HE Flowers are Male and Hermaphrodite^ (in fojiie Species 
^ Male and Female) upon difFerent plants. 

*Thc 



( 96 ) 

^Tho Male. ■ 

The kmpalemem is five-parted and fpreading, with a plane bot- 
tom. 

The Corolla none. 

The Filaments are ten, awl-lliaped and fhorter than the calyx. 

The Anthem are twin and the length of the filaments. 
*The Hermaphrodite. 

The Empalement as in the male, fitting upon the germen. 
The Corolla none. 

The Filaments are five, awi-lliaped, and ereft. The Anthers 
are fimple. 

The Germen is ovate and beneath. The Sfjle is awl-fhaped, in- 
curved, and longer than the ftamina. j he Stigma is acute. 

The Seed-veJJ'el is a drupe, ovate and one cell'd. 

The Seed is a nut, oval, acute, hollowed with longitudinal 
furrows, angled, and irregular. 

Obf. The Nyffa fyivatica is Male and Female on different 

The Species are^ 

I. Nyssa aquatica. Virginian Water Tupelo-- 
Tree. 

This grows naturally in wet fwamps, or near large 
rivers, in Carolina and Florida; rifing with aftrong 
upright trunk to the height of eighty or an hundred 
feet, dividing into many branches towards the top. 
The leaves are pretty large, of an oval, fpear-fliap- 
ed fonii, generally entire, buc fometimes fomewhat 
toothed, and covered underneath with a whitifli 
down: they are joined to long, flender footftalks, 
and affixed to the branches in fomewhat of a verti- 
cillate order, prefenting a beautiful varied foliage. 
The berries are near the fize and fliape of fmall 
olives^ and are preferved in like manner by the 
French inhabitants upon the Miffiffippi, where it 
greatly abounds, and is called the Ohve tree.* The 
timber is white and foft when unfeafonedj but light 

and 



( 97 ) 



and eompaft when dry, which renders it very pro* 
per for making trays, bowls, &c, 

2. Nyssa Ogechc; The Ogeche Lime Tree. 

(Bartram's Catalogue.) 

This is a tree of great fmgnlarity and beauty; 
growing naturally in water, in the fouthern ftate«, 
and rifmg to the height of about thirty feet. The 
leaves are oblong, of a deep fhining green on their 
upper fides, and lightly hoary underneath. The 
flowers are male tmd female upon different trees, and 
are produced upon divided, or many flowered foot- 
flalks. The fruit is nearly oval, of a deep red colour, 
of the fize of a Damafccne Plumb, and of an agree- 
able acid tafl:e ; from which it is called the Lime- 
tree. Perhaps thi^ is the multiflora of Wefton. 

3. Nyssa fylvatica. XJpland Tupelo-Tree^ or 
Sour Gum. 

This grows naturally in Pennfylvania artd perhaps 
^Ifewhere, rifing with a fl:rong upright trunk to the 
i^ight of thirty or forty feet, and fomctimes of near 
two feet in diameter; fending off many horizontal, 
and often depending branches ; garniflied with oval, 
or rather inverfe egg-fliaped leaves, a little pointed, 
entire, of a dark green and fliining upper furface, 
but lighter and a htt^e hairy underneath: thofe of 
male trees are often narrower and fometimes lance- 
fhaped. The flowers are produced upon pretty long 
common footftalks, arifmg from the bafe of the 
young {hoots, and dividing irregularly into feveral 
parts, generally from fix to ten; each fupporting a 
fmall flower, having an cmpalement of fix or feven 
linear, unequal leaves, and from fix to eight awl- 

N lhaped 



( 98 > 



ft aped fpreadlng ftamina, fupporting fhort four lobed 
AnthercC. The female trees have fewer flowers pro- 
duced upon much longer, fimple, cylhidrical foot- 
ftalks, thickened at the extremity, and fupporting 
generally three flowers, fitting clofe and having a 
fmall involucrum. They are compofed of five fmall 
oval leavas, and in the center an awl-fliaped incurv- 
ed ftyle, arifmg from the oblong germen, which is 
beneath, and becomes an oval oblong berry, of a 
dark purpliih colour when ripe* The timber of this 
tree is clofe grained and curled fo as not to be fplit or 
parted; and therefore much ufed for hubs of wheels 
for waggons, carriages, &c. 

O L E A. 

The OLIVE-TREE. 
Clafs 2. Order i. Diandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, tubular, and fmall : the bor- 
der four-toothed, ere61: and deciduous. 
The Corolla is one petal'd, funnel-form. The tube cylindrical, 
the length of the empalement^ The border four-parted and 
plain : the divifions femi-ovate. 
The Filaments two, oppofite, av/l-fhaped and fhort. The Jn- 
thercB eredt. 

The Germen is roundilh. The Style fimple, very fhort. The 

Stigmas two- cleft, thickened, the divifions end-nicked. 
The Seed-veJJel a drupe, fomewhat ovate, fmooth, and one cell'd. 
The Seed ovate-oblong, and wrinkled, 

Tbe Species %vith usy 

Olea americana. American Olive Tree. 

- This grows naturally in Carolina and Florida, and 
is a beautiful ever-green tree. The leaves are nearly 
ovate, or fomewhat oblong, perennial-, of a fliining, 

full 



{ 99 ) 



full green, on their upper furface, and of a folid 
confiftence. The fruit ot berries are nearly oval, 
of the fize of a fparrow's egg, of a beautiful blu- 
ifli purple, and covered with a nebula or gloom. 

P H I L A D E L P H U S. 

SYRINGA, or MOCK-ORANGE. 

Clafs 12. Order i. Icofandria Moaogynkv 

HTHE Empalement is one leaved, four parted, iTiarp pointed, 
^ and permanent. 
* ifhe Corolla has four petals, rolmdifh, plane, large and fpread- 
ing. 

The Filaments are twenty, awl-lliaped and the length of the 
calyx. The Anthercs are ere£l and four furrowed. 

The Germen is beneath. The St^le is thread form and four- 
parted. The ^ff^wifli- are fimple. 

The Seed'VejJel is a capfule, oval, iTiarp-poihted; patt fiirj*6tilid- 
-ed by the calyx, with four cells, and four valves. 

The Seeds are numerous, oblong and fmall. 

We have^ with us^ but one Species, viz. 

PniLADELPHUs inodoriis, Carolinian S^^ent- 
hjs Syringa. 

This is faid to grovy naturally in Carolina; riling 
"with a (hrubby ftalk to the height of tv/elve or fifteen 
feet, fending out oppofite branches, furniflied with 
fmooth, entire leaves, fliaped like thofe of the Pear 
tree, but ftanding oppofite upon pretty long foot- 
ftalks. The flowers are pretty large and have large 
* empalements of four acute-pointed leaves, and four 
white, oval, fpreading petals, and a great number 
of ftamina with yellow fummits. This is impatient 
of much cold. 



PINIJS. 



( ) 



P I N U S. 

The PINE-TREE. 
Clafs 21. Order 9. Monoecia Polyandria, 

*nrHE Male Flowers are difpofed in Racemi or bunches. 

j he Calyx none but the fcales of the bud, gaping. 
The Corolla none. 

The Filaments are numerous and joined beneath in an ered co- 
lumn, divided at top. The Anthem are ere^t. 

♦ The Female Flowers are in the fame plant. 

ThQ Calyx is a common, fomewhat ovate cone, confifting of 
Scales, which are two flowered, pblong, imbricated, rigid, » 
and permanent. 

The Corolla none. 

The Germen is very fmall. The Style is awl-fliaped. The Stig- 
ma fimple. 

The Seed'VejJel none^ but the fcales of the cone. 

ThQ Seed is a nut, increafed wjth a membranaceous wing, which 
is larger than the feed, but fmaller than the fcale of the 
cone, oblong, ftraight on one fide and gibbous on the other. 

The Species, with us^ are^ 

J. PiNUs echinata. Three leaved prickly-coned 
Baftard Fine. 

This grows naturally in Virginia. The leaves are 
long and narrow, fometinies three, at other times 
but two in each flieath. The cones are long and 
flender, their fcales terminating in ftiarp points. 

2. Pin us paluftris. Longejl three leaved Marjl> 
Pine. 

This grows naturally in South Carolina, and is of 
a middling growth* The leaves are produced by 
threes in a {heath and are often ten or twelve inches 



( loi ) 

in length. The cones are long and large, opening 
and dropping their feeds in the tall. It is accounted 
equ^-l to any for yielding tar, &c. 

3. Pin us rigid a. Common three leaved Virgi-- 

nian Pine. 

This grows common in many places throughout 
thefe dates, rifmg often to the height of fixty or 
feventy feet, with a large ereft trunk, dividing into 
branches towards the top, and furniftied with pretty 
long leaves growing by threes in a fheath. The 
cones are often produced in clufters round the 
branches, they are about three inches long and have 
rigid fcales. There are whole Forefls of many 
hundred acres of thefe trees in fome back parts of 
the country, of which great quantities of Boards 
are fawed and floated down fome of our long rivers. 

4. Pin us Strobus, Neiv- England^ or White 

Pine. 

This is allowed to out top in growth mod of our 
other trees, rifing with a large ereft trunk, to the 
height of an hundred feet or more, covered with a 
fmootli bark and fending off many long branches,. 
The leaves are long and flender, growing by fives in 
a flieath, and fet thick on the branches. The cones 
are often fix or feven inches in length, and generally 
befmeared with turpentine, with which thefe trees 
much abound. The cones generally open about the 
firft ef September, foon after which the feeds drop 
out. This alfo grows in great plenty towards the 
heads of fome of our rivers, from whence great 
quantities arc rafted down, affording excellent mafts, 
yards, fpars, &c. &c. for fhip building. 



5. PiNUS 



( 102 ) 



5". Tin US Taeda. Virginian Swamps or Frank- 
incence Pine. 

This grows to a pretty large fize, the leaves are ve- 
ry long and narrow and are produced by threes in a 
fheath. The cones are pretty long and large. This 
is ufeful for bojards, and for producing turpentine 
and taf, as are the other kinds. 

6. Pin Us virginiana. Tuuo-kaved Virginian^ 
or Jerfey Pine. 

This is generally of but low growth, but divided 
into many branches. The leaves are broader and 
fliorter than the other kinds, and of a deeper green 
colour ; they are produced by twos in each flieath. 
The cones are fmall, each fcale terminating with a 
prickly point. This is called, in fome places, Spruce 
Pioc. 

PINUS-ABIES. ^ 

The F I R - T R E E. 

I. Pinus-Abies Balfamea. Balm of Gilead 
Fir-Tree. 

This tree grows to the height of thirty or forty feet, 
fending ofFmanybranches, which are thick fet chiefly 
upon two fides, w^ith ftifF linear leaves,, refembhng 
thofe of the Yew. The furface of the trunl^is al- 
mofc covered with fmall bladders, or rifings in the 
cuticle of the bark, which are filled with a clear bal- 
fam or turpentine. The cones are pretty large, and 
fall to pieces in the autumn. 



2. PiNUS- 



( ) 



2. Pin US- Abies canadenfis, Newfoundland 

Spruce. 

There are faid to be three varieties of this, dif- 
tinguifhed by the colour of their cones, into white, 
red and black; fome of which, fometimes become 
pretty large trees. The leaves are lUfi and linear, 
and nightly channelled on both fides, fmaller than 
thofe of the Balm of Gilead, and fet equally upon 
all fides of the branches. The trees make a very 
good appearance, and of thefe the famous Spruce- 
beer is brewed. 

3. Pinus-Abies americana. Hemlock Spruce 

Fir-Tree. 

This rifes up with but a flender trunk, fometimes 
to a great height, and is generally thick fet with 
fom^what horizontal branches. The leaves are fhap- 
ed much like thofe of the Yew and are ranged upon 
two fides of the branches, fo appearing flat, like 
thofe of the European Silver Firs, but are of a pale 
green on both fides. The cones are very fmall, 
loofe, and of an oval oblong form. The bark is 
faid to be good for tanning leather; and with it, our 
natives dye their fplints for bafkets of a red colour. 

P I N U S - L A R I X. 

The L A R C H - T R E E. 

I . Pi N US-La Rix rvibra. Red American Larch- 
Tree. 

^ This fhoots up to a confiderable height with a fien- 
dtr erefc trunk, fendiftg off many flender branches. 

The 



( 104 ) 



The leaves are pretty long, linear and foft, coming 
out in fafcicuH, or fniall bundles fpreacling like a 
painter's brufh, and are fet pretty thick around the 
branches. They are of a light green colour and de- 
ciduous. The cones are of a fine red colour at their 
firfl: appearaflce; they are fmalls perhaps three-fourths 
of an inch long, and half an inch thick, the fcales 
fmooth, opening early in the fall and dropping their 
feeds, which are very fmall and winged. 

2. Pinus-Larix alba. JVhite American Larch- 

Tree. 

This a variety of the other, differing very little, 
except in the cones, being of a greenifh white co- 
lour« 

3, Pinus-Larix nigra. Black American 

Larch-Tree. 

This is alfo a variety differing in having dark co- 
loured cones. 

P L A T A N U S. 

The P L A N E - T R E E. 
Clafs 21. Order 8. Monoecia Polyandria. 

THE Flowers are Male and Female upon the fame plant. 
*The Male Flowers are difpofed in aglobofe katkin. 
The Calyx confifts of fome very fmall fegments* 
The Corolla is fcarce manifeft. 

The Filaments are oblong, thicker above, and coloured. The 
Antherce are four cornered, moving round the filaments to 
the inferior fide. 

*The Female Flowers are difpofed in a globe. 

The i-aiyx confifis of many fmall fcales. < 

The C(/rQlla of many petals, concave^ oblong and clubbed. 

The 



( ) 



The Germen are many, difpofed in a globe and ending in awl- 

lhaped St'jleSy with recurved Stigmas. 
The Seed-veJJel none. But a globofe receptacle. 
The Seeds are oblong, angular and clubbed, crowned by the 

permanent ftyle, and with a capillary pappus adhering at the 

bafe. 

OhJ, 1 am in doubt with regard to the petals. 

We have^ i$ith us^ but one Species, viz* 

Pl A T A N us occidentalis. American Plane-Tree^ 
or Large Button Wood. 

This grows common by creeks and river fides in 
many parts of America. It is of quick growth, and 
often becomes a large tree of fixty or feventy feet 
in height and above three feet in diameter, fending 
off but few long, diverging branches, which toge- 
ther with the upper part of the trunk, are generally 
Covered with a fmoothifli bark, annually, or often 
renewed, and falling off in thin plates or fcales. 
The leaves are broad, and cut into angles, or lobed ; 
having feveral acute indentures on their borders, of 
a light green on their upper fide, but paler, and a 
little wooly underiueath ; with long footftalks, and 
placed alternately. The flowers are produced in 
round pendulous balls, of near an inch in diameter, 
upon very long footftalks. This is fometimes fawed 
into boards, and has been much ufed of late by our 
cavd-makers, for card-boards or backs* 

P O P U L U S. 

The P P L A R - T R E 

Clafs 22. Order 7. Dioecia Odandria. 

nPHE Flowers fet Mak and Female on difFerent Plants, 
^ *TheMa/^. 

O The 



( io6 ) 

The Calyx is a common katkin, oblong, loofely imbricated, and 
cylindrical; compofed of Scales which are one flowered, ob- 
long, and plane, with the margin torn. 

The Corolla none, but 

A Ne&armn of one leaf, top fliaped and tubulous beneath, 
but oblique and terminating in an oval border above. 

The Filaments are eight, very iTiort. The Anthem are four- 
cornered and large. 

* V he Female. 

The Katkin, Scales, and Ne&aria^ are like the Male. 

The Germen is ovate-fliarp pointed. The Style is fcarce man!- 

feft. The Stigma is four cleft. 
The Seed-vejjels are ovate capfules, two ceird and two valv'd : 

the valves reflexed. 
The Seeds are numerous and ovate, with a volatile capillary 

pappus. 

^h^ Species, with us^ are^ 

I. PoPULUs deltoide. White Poplar y or Cotton 
Tree of Carolina. > 

(Bartram's Catalogue.) 

This becomes a tall tree, with a large ereft trunk, 
covered with a white, fmoothifli bark, refembling 
that of the Afpen tree. The leaves are large, gene- 
rally nearly triangular, toothed or indented with 
ftiarp and deep ferratures, of a fhining full green 
on their upper furface, but fomewhat lighter or 
hoary underneath; (landing upon long flender foot- 
ftalks, and generally reftlefs or in motion. The 
timber is white, firm, and elaftic, principally ufed 
for fence rails. It grows naturally upon rich low 
lauds, on the banks of large rivers in Carolina and 
Florida* 



2. PoPULUS 



( I07 ) 



2. PopULUS heterophylla. Virginian Poplar- 
Tree. 

This becomes a pretty large tree, the branches of 
which are nerved, appearing as if quadrangular. 
The leaves are large and varioufly fliaped, fome 
roundifh, others heart-form, flightiy fawed on their 
edges and downy at their firft appearance. 

3. PopuLUs nigra. Black Poplar. 

This is not of very large growth, but covered 
with a darkifli rough bark. The leaves are fome- 
what triangular, pretty long pointed, flightiy and 
obtufely fawed on their edges, (landing upon pretty 
long footftalks, fmooth and of a bright green on their 
upper furface, but lighter and a little downy under- 
neath. 

4. PopULus tremula. American Afpen-Tree, 

This grows frequently to the height of about 
thirty feet, covered with a fmooth whitiih bark. 
The leaves are fmall, fmooth on both fides, of a 
dark green colour above, but lighter underneath; 
roundifh, and a little pointed, or forming nearly an 
equilateral fpherical triangle ; flighty crenated, a lit- 
tle waved on their edges, and trimmed with a very- 
narrow hairy border. Their footftalks are pretty 
long, roundifh at the bafe, but comprefTed on their 
fides towards the bafe of the leaves. The katkins 
are large appearing early in the fpring. 

5. PoPULus balfamifera. Balfam, or Tacamahac^ 
Tree. 

This is a tree of but middling growth, covered 
with a light brown bark. The leaves are large, 

fomewhat 



( io8 ) 

fomewhat heart-fliaped, lightly toothed, or crcnated 
on their edges-» of a dark green on their upper furface 
but lighter underneath. The buds abound with a 
glutinous refin, which is the tacamahacca of the 
fliops. 

6. PopuLrs balfamifera lanceolata. Lance-leaved 

Ba/fam Tree. 

This is a variety of the lafl: kind, of a fmafl and 
very flow growth. The leaves are fpear-fliape, of a 
bright green above, but whitifli and variegated with 
brownifli veins beneath, with a few, fcarce obfervable, 
ferratures on their edges, and joined to fliort, chan- 
n-elled, and often fomewhat reddifli footfl:alks. 

POTENTILLA. 

SHRUB CINQUEFOIL. 
Clafs 12. Order 5. Icofandria Polygynia. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, planilli, and half five cleft, 
the alternate divifions are lefs and reflexed. 
The Corolla has five petals, roiindifh, fpreading, and inferted 

by claws in the calyx. 
The Filaments twenty, awl-lliaped, iliorter than the corolla, 
and inferted in the calyx. The Antherce are elongate-inoon- 
ihaped. 

The Germen are numerous, rery fmall and collected in a little 
head. The Stales are thread-form, the length of the ftamina, 
and inferted in the fides of the germen. The Stigmas are ob- 
tufe. 

The Seed-veffel none, but a common receptacle, which is round- 
ifli, juicelefs, very fmall, permanent, covered with feeds and 
included in the calyx. 

The Seeds are numerous and lliarp pointed. 

We have but one Species, viz, 



PoT£N- 



( ) 



Pot £N TILL A fruticofa americana. American 
Jhruhhy Cinquefoil. 

This is a fmall fhruh, feldom rifing above two 
feet high, and fpreading into many branches. The 
leaves are fmall and thick fet upon the branches, they 
are winged, and compofed, generally, of five fmall, 
oblong hairy lobes, reflexed on their edges and {land- 
ing together. The flowers are produced pretty 
thick on the branches, of a yellow colour, and are 
fucceeded by fmall heads of pointed feeds. 

P R I N O S. 

The W I N T E R - B E R R Y. 
Clafs 6. Order i. Hexandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is one leaved, plane, half- fix- cleft, very 
fmall, and permanent. 
The Corolla has one petal, wheel- iTi aped. The tube none. The 

horder is fix parted and plane: the divifions ovate. 
The Filaments are fix, awl-lliaped, ered and Ihorter than the 

corolla. The Antherce are oblong and obtufe. 
The Germen is ovate, ending in a St^le iliorter than the fl:amina, 

with an obtufe Stigma. 
The Seed-vejjel is a roundifii berry, with fix cells ; and far larg- 
er than the calyx. 
The Seeds are folitary, bony, obtufe, convex on one fide and 

angled on the other. 
Qhj\ Sometimes a fixth part of the number is excluded. 

There are two Species of this Shrub ^ viz. 

I. Prinos glaber. Evergreen Winter- Berry. 

This grows in feveral parts of North America, 
rifing up with flender flirubby flalks to the height of 
fix or eight feet, dividing into branches, which are 

garniflied 



( no ) 



garnlflied with fmall, evergreen, oblong, fmooth 
leaves, of a thick confiftence, with a few flight fer- 
ratures towards their points, and placed alternate, 
upon Ihortifli footftalks. The flowers are produced 
from the bofom of the leaves upon fliort footflalks ; 
and are fucceeded by fmall roundifli berries, of a 
black colour when ripe. 

2. Prinos verticillatus. Virginian Winter^ 
Berry. 

This grows naturally in moifl: places, by fi:reams 
of water; generally fending up feveral flender (talks 
to the height of eight or ten feet, dividing into a 
few branches towards the top. The leaves are lance- 
fliaped, fliarp pointed, and acutely fawed on their 
edges; having fliort flender footllalks, and placed 
alternately. The flowers come out at the bofom of 
the leaves in fmall Corymbi or Clufl:ers; of an her- 
baceous colour. They are fucceeded by roundifli 
berries of a red colour when ripe, and remaining 
long on the branches, almofl: furrounding them in 
places and fomewhac refembhng a whorl. 

Note, The inner bark of this flirub is very good 
to make poultices of for ripening tumors. 

P R U N U S. 

The P L U M B - T R E E. 
Clafs 12. Order i. Icofaadria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is one leaved, bell-fhaped, five cleft, and 
deciduous ; the divifions are obtufe and concave. 
The Corolla has five petals, roundifli, concave, large, fpread- 

ing, and inferted by claws in the €alyx. 
The Filaments are from twenty to thirty, awl-fliaped, near the 
length of the corolla, and inferted in the calyx. The Jnthercs 
are twin and fliort. 

The 



( III ) 

The Gemen is roundilTi. The Style is thread- form and the 

length of the ftamina. The Stigma is orbiculate. 
The Seed'VeJJel is a roundifK drupe. 
The Seed is a nut, roundilh and compreffed. 

The Species, with us, are, 

I. Prunus americana. Large Tellow Sweet Plumb. 

This generally rifes to the height of twelve or fif- 
teen feet, fpreading into many ftifF branches. The 
leaves are oblong, oval, acute pointed, fharpiy faw- 
ed on their edges and much veined. The flowers 
generally come out very thick round the branches, 
often upon thick fliort fpurs; and are fucceeded by 
large oval fruit, v/ith a fweet fucculent pulp. We 
have a great variety of thefe, growing naturally in 
a good, moift foil, with reddifli and yellow^ifli fruit, 
but differing much in fize, tafle, and confiflence. 

2. Prunus anguftifolia. Chicafaw Plu7nb. 

This is fcarcely of fo large a growth as the former, 
but rifmg with a fliff fhrubby flalk, dividing into 
many branches, which are garnifhed with fmooth 
lance-fhaped leaves, much fmaller and narrower than 
the firft kind ; a little waved on their edges, mark- 
ed with very fine, flight, coloured ferratures, and 
of an equal, fhining green colour, on both fides. 
The blolToms generally come out very thick, and 
are fucceeded by oval, or often fomewhat egg-fhap- 
ed fruit, with a very thin fkin, and foft fweet pulp. 
There are varieties of this with yellow and crimfon 
coloured fruit. Thefe being natives of the fouthern 
ftates, are fomewhat impatient of much cold. 



3. Prunus 



( 112 ) 



3. PruKUs miffiffippi. Crimfon Plumb. 

This grows naturally upon the Miffiffippi, and is 
of larger fize than moft of the other kinds. The 
fruit are crimfon colaured, and fomewhat acid. 

4. Prunus maritima. Sea ftde Plumb. 

This grows naturally towards the fea coaft, rifmg 
to the height of eight or ten feet, often leaning, and 
fpreading into many branches. The leaves are ob- 
long, rather fmaller and not fo pointed as thofe of 
the common plumbj fmooth and of a fliining green 
on the upper fide, but fomething lighter underneath, 
and flightly fawed on the edges. This is generally 
well filled with flowers, a few of which are fucceed- 
ed by fmall, roundiffi fruit. 

5. Prunijs declinata. Dwarf Plumb. 

This is of a fmall dwarfifli growth, feldom rifing 
above four or five feet high, but frequently bearing 
fruit at the height of two or three; which is fmall^ 
and almoft black when ripe. 

To this Genus alfo belongs 
C E R A S U S. 

The CHERRY- TREE. 
Of which our Species are^ 

I. Prunus-Cerasus virginiana. Virginian Bird^ 
CherryTree. 

This grows naturally in a rich moift foil, often to 
the height of forty feet or more, with a trunk of 

eighteen 



( "3 ) 

eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, generally re- 
taining its thicknefs a confiderable height, and 
branching out towards the top. The leaves are 
lance-fhaped, or long, narrow, pointed, and 
fawed on their edges. The flowers arc produced in 
bunches, generally pretty thick fct on the branches ; 
they are of a white colour, and are fucceeded by 
fmall fruit, of a purplifti colour when ripe, and of 
a difagreeable, bitter tafle, but greedily devoured by 
the birds. 

The timber is of a reddifh ftreaked colour, capa- 
TdIc of receiving a fine poKfli ; and is frequently faw- 
ed into boards, and ufed by joiners, cabinent-mak* 
ers, &c. for many purpofes. 

2. Prunus-Cerasus canadenfis. Canadian^ or 

Dwarf Bird-Cherty-Tree. 

This is a fmall kind, growing to the height of fix 
or eight feet, and dividing into branches, which are 
furniflied with broader and fliorter leaves, fomewhat 
refembling thofe of the Apple, or Crab-tree, but 
fmaller. The flowers are produced in a racemus, 
or bunch, compofed of more footfl:alks than the 
Virginian kind ; and are fucceeded by fruit of near 
the fame colour and fize, not of fo bitter a tafl:e, but 
greatly corrugating the mouth and throat, fo as to 
obtain the name of Choak-Ciierry, 

3. Prunus-Cerasus montana. Mountain Bird-Cber* 

ry-Tree. 

This grows naturally upon the mountains in the 
back parts of Pennfylvania ; rifing up with a flender 
ftem to the li,eight of twelve or fifteen feet, and di- 
viding into a few very flender branches, furniflied 
with leaves refembhng the fi^fl;, or Virginian kiud. 

P Tke 



( "4 ) 



The fruit is Kkewife produced in the fame manner, 
but is fmaller, of a red colour, and an extremely 
acid tafle. 

And alfo to the Genus Prunus, belongs^ 

LAURO-CERASUS. 

The LAUREL-TREE. 

Of which we have but one Species, viz. 

Prunus-Lauro-Cerasus ferratifolia. Carolinian 
Evergreen Bay-tree* 

This is a beautiful evergreen fhrub, but of fmall 
growth ; fpreading with lateral branches, on every 
fide and covered with a brown bark. The leaves 
are fpear-lhaped, above two inches long and three 
quarters of an inch or more in breadth, with a few 
fliarp ferratures on their edges, (landing alternately 
on very fliort footftalks, of a thick confiftence, and 
fhining green colour, continuing their verdure all 
the year. The flowers are generally very numerous, 
perfectly white, and are fucceeded by roundifh fruit 
of the fize of a middling cherry, of a black colour 
when ripe. This is a native of South Carolina, and 
other ioulhern States. 

P T E L E A. 

P T E L E A. 
Clafs 4. Order i. Tetrandria Monogynia. 

nPHE Empakment is five-parted, acute, and fmall. 

The Corolla has four petals, ovate-lanced, plane, fpread- 
ing, larger than the calyx, and coriaceous. 

The 



( "5 ) 



The Filaments are four, awl-fliaped. The Jnthercs are roundlfh. 
The Germen is orbiculate and compreffed. The St^le is Ihort. 

The Stigmas are two, a little obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjel is a roundilh, perpendicular membrane, in the 

center two celPd. 
The Seed is one, obtufe, and leffened at the bafe. 

OhJ. The Petals and ftamina, alfo the divifions of the calyx; 
have often one added to their number. 



We have^ with usy but one Species, viz. 

Ptelea trifoliata. Carolinian Shrub-Trefoih 

This rifes with an upright woody ftem, to the 
height of ten or twelve feet, dividing into many- 
branches, covered with a fmoorh greyifh bari^. The 
leaves are trifohate, or compofed of three oval, 
fpear-fliaped lobes, of a bright green on their upper 
fide, but paler underneath, and inferted together at 
the end of a pretty long footftalk. The flowers ter- 
minate the branches in a kind of umbel, or large 
branching heads, of a whitifli herbaceous colour j 
and are fucceeded by roundifli, flat, bordered cap- 
fules, fomewhat refembling thofe of the Elm, each 
containing two feeds. 

P Y R O L A. 

WINTER-GREEN. 
Chifs lo. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is five-parted, fmall, and permanent. 
The Corolla is compofed of live petals, which are round- 
illi, concave, and fpreading. 
The Filaments are ten, awi-fhaped, iliorter than the corolla. 

The Antherce are nodding, large, and two-horned upward. 
The Fiftillum has a roundilh, angular Germen^ a filiform, per- 
manent St'jky longer than the ftamina; and a thickifli Stigma. 

The 



( n6 ) 



The Pericarpium, or ^eed-vejJeU is a roundifh, depreffed, pen- 
tagonal Capjule^ with five cells, gaping at the angles. 

The Seeds are numerous and chaffy. 

Obf, The Stamina and ftyle differ fometimes in fituation. 

The Species, with usy are, 

I. Pyrola maculata. Spotted Pyrola. 

This is a fmall plant, fddom rifing above four or 
five inches high, with flender ligneous ftalks. The 
leaves are ever-green, oblong and pointed, of a 
thick confidence, with a few ftiarp ferratures on their 
edges; fmooth and of a dark green on their upper 
fides, but marked with a broad, branching, longi- 
tudinal vein or ftreak, of a whitilh or paler colour; 
and lomewhat reddifli underneath. There are gene- 
rally three or four of thefe placed at the top of the 
ftem fomewhat horizontally, and fometimes fmaller 
ones beneath, fet by threes. The flowers are like-* 
wife produced at the top upon a pretty long, (nod- 
ding at firft, but afterwards ereft) divided footftalk, 
often fuftaining two or three white flowers, which 
are fucceeded by roundifh, ilepreflfed capfules, filled 
with fmall feeds. 

2. Pyrola rotundifoha. Round leaved Fyrola. 

This is of fmaller growth than the former, hav- 
ing about three or four roundifli leaves, rifing from 
the root, with pretty long three fided footftalks, 
channelled above. Thefe often become pretty large 
and a little waved oil their edges, they are of a light 
green, and fcarcely perennial. The flowers are pro- 
duced upon a radical triangular footflalk, of four or 
five inches in length, in form of a racemus or bunch, 
fupporting five or fix white flowers, which are fuc- 
ceeded by fmall, round, deprelTed capfules. 

3. Pyrola 



( 117 ) 



3- Pyrola umbellata. Ujnbellated Fyrola. 

This grows commonly to the height of five or fix 
inches, generally let pretty thick with leaves, which 
are wedge-fiiapcd or narroweil towards the bafc, 
fmooth, of a Ihining green, and fiiarply fawed on 
their edges. The flowers terminate the ftalks on a 
pretty long divided footihilk, in a kind of little um- 
bel, which is nodding at tirft but becomes ereft, fup- 
porting five or fix round, pentagonal, dcpreffed cap- 
lules, filled with fmall feeds. 

A decoftion (^r infufiou of this, has been ufed 
with confidcrable fuccefs as a fubflitute. for the Peru- 
vian bark. The roots are faid to give eafe in the 
tooth ach. This kind is called by the Indians Fkip- 
fejawa. 

P Y R U S. 

The P E A R - T R E E. 
Clafs 12. Order 4. Icofcindrla Fentagynia, 

^T^HE Enipakment is of one leaf, concave, half five-cleft, and 
permanent; the fegments fpreading. 

The Corolla has five roundiili, concave, large petals, inferted 
in the empalement. 

The Filaments are twenty, awl-lliaped, lliorter than the corolla, 
and inferted in the empalement. The Antherce fijnple. 

The Germen is beneath. 1 he St^ies five, thread- form, the 
length of the ftamina. Tlie Scigmas fimple. 

I he Sccd-veJJel a pome, roundiili^ umbilicated and fielliy, with 
five membranaceous cells. 

The Sseds a few, oblong, obtufe, fliarpcned at the bafe, con- 
vex on one fide and plane on the other. 

To this Genus belongs 



MALUS. 



( "8 ) 



M A L U S. 

The APPLE-TREE. 

Of which we have one Species, viz. 

Pyrus-Malus coronaria* Virginian fveet-fcented 
Crab-Tree. 

This often grows to the height of twelve or fifteen 
feet, dividing into many ftiff branches, fet pretty 
thick with fliort ftiff fpurs. The leaves are fomewhat 
like thofe of the Apple-tree, but often toothed, or 
largely and irregularly fawed on their edges. The 
flowers generally come out thick upon the branches, 
upon pretty long dividing footftalks; they are pretty 
large, of a beautiful blufh colour, and fragrant odour 
at their firft appearance. The fruit is fmall, hard, 
roundiili, umbilicated, and extremely acid. It is 
frequently ufed for conferves, &c. There is faid to 
be a variety of this in Carolina with evergeen leaves, 
though I have never feen it. 

Q^U E R C U S. 

The O A K ' T R E E. 

Clafs 2 1, Order 8. Monoecia Polyandria. 

^npHE Male Flowers are difpofed in a loofe katkin. 

The Empalement is of one leaf, four or five-parted; the 
divifions are acute and often bifid. 
They have no Corolla, 

The Filaments are feveral, very fliort. The Anthers large and 
double. 

'-''The Female are in clofe buds, on the fame plant with the 
Male. 

The Perianthium is of one leaf, coriaceous, hemifpherical, 
rough, and entire, fcarge manifeft in the flower. 

There 



( "9 ) 



There is no Corolla. 

The Germen is egg-lTiaped and fmall. The Style fimple, nve- 
cleft and longer than the empalement. The Stigmas are 
fimple and permanent. 

There is no Seed-vejfel, but an oval, columnar, fmooth nut, 
fliaved at the bafe and affixed in the Ihort calyx. 

The Species and Varieties with us, are many^ which, 
I think, may be divided in the following manner, 
into 

* Quercus alba. White Oak. 

1. Quercus alba. Common American White Oak» 

This grows very common, and with age arrives to 
the fize of a large tree of feventy or eighty feet in 
height, and of three, four, five, or more feet in 
diameter; dividing into many large branches, and 
covered with a whitifli fcaly bark. The leaves are 
narrowed towards the bafe, but fpreading and deeply 
fmuated obliquely, towards the ends; the finufes ob- 
tufe, the angles, or produdlions unequal in length, 
entire and obtufe. They are of a glaucous, or 
light green underneath and have very fhort footftalks. 
The acorns are middling fized, fitting in fmall fhal- 
low cups. There are fome varieties of this, differing 
in the hardnefs and toughnefs of the timber, and 
fomewhat in their acorns or fruit. It affords a hard, 
tough, ufeful and valuable timber, which is hewed 
into beams, &c. for frame buildings ; fawed into 
plank, &c, for (hip building; and apphed to various 
other ufeful purpofes. Our fwine are often wholly 
fatted upon the feveral kinds of acorns, but for theib 
and Chefnut Oak they feek moft diligently. 



2. Quercus 



( ) 



^. Quercus alba minor. Barren White Oak. 

This grows generally upon poor, barren, or wafte 
land, riling perhaps to the height of thirty or forty 
feet, covered with fcaly greyifh bark. The leaves 
are fomewhat rough, but of a ftiining green above, 
fomewhat paler underneath ; they are finuated deep- 
ly, moll obtufely, and irregularly; the lobes orpro- 
duftions (if I may be allovv^ed the expreffion) are 
obtufe, often fomewhat angular, and very irregular. 
The acorns are fmall and ftriped. The timber is ac- 
counted very durable for pofts, to fet in the earth ; 
otherwife not much efteemed unlefs for fuel. 

3, QiiERCUS alba paluftris. Swamp White Oak. 

This becomes a pretty large fpreading tree, of two 
or three feet in diameter and of proportionable height. 
The bark is often rougher or more furrowed than 
the other kinds, and greyifli coloured. The leaves 
are fomewhat wedge-fliaped or narrowed towards the 
bafe, and toothed on their edges and extremities. 
The acorns are larger and rounder than thofe of the 
common White Oak, and have larger and thicker 
cups, fupported often by pairs upon a long, ftrong 
footftalk. 

* * Quercus nigra. Black Oak. 

4, QjjERCUs nigra. Conmon Pennfyhanian Black 

Oak. 

This grows to the height of fixty or feventy feet, 
and to three or four feet in diameter, with large 
fpreading branches. The leaves are large, fpread- 
ing, and fomewhat woolly; their footftalks longer 
than thofe of the White Oak. They are irregular- 



( ) 



ly 2^nd fometinies pretty deeply finuated, the angles 
or produAions unequal, generally obtufe, yet with 
their veins extending in a briftly point. The acorns 
are roundifh and not large, fitting in thick fcaly cups. 
There is, I think, a variety of this of much finaller 
growth, with larger leaves and differing fomewhat 
in the fruit. Our common Black Oak is ufed much 
(where Cedar is fcarce) for making fliingles, and 
alfo for rails^ &c. 

v5. QuERC us- nigra digit^ta. Finger-leaved 
Black Oak. 

This grows n^iturally in low lands, rifmg to the 
height of thirty or forty feet, with a trunk of con- 
fiderable thicknefs, covered with a rough blackifli 
bark. The leaves are fmuated, or divided towards 
their extremities into two or three pretty long, fome- 
what finger-fhaped lobes, of unequal length, with 
others (horter, fometimes at the fides; all of which 

^'cnd in a briftly point. The acorns are fmall, but 

'the cups pretty large. 

6. Que R eus nigra trifida. Maryland Black 

This grows naturally in Maryland, and other low 
lands, , with a trunk of eighteen inches or two feet 
in diameter, and thirty or forty feet in height. The 
leaves arc wedge-fhaped, or narrowed towards the 
bafe, and three-pointed, with briftly terminations- 
The acorns. ai[id cups refcmble the laft mentioned. 

7. Que Reus nigra Integrifolia. Entire-kaved 

Black Oak. 

This grows about the fize of the other lo\^-land 
Black Oak, and is of the fame appearance, except 

the 



( ) 



the leaves being fomewhat inverfe egg-fliapcd, iind 
often a little notched or indented on each fide to- 
wards the extremity, 

8. QuERCUs nigra pumila. Dwarf BldA 
Oak. 

This grows naturally upon poor barren ridges, 
rifing to the height of five or fix feet, with a crook« 
ed, branching ftem. The leaves are about three 
pointed, much refembling thofe of the Maryland 
Black Oak. The acorns are fmall, and ftand in 
fmall fhallow cups. This, I believe, is of little ufe 
or beauty. 

* * * Quercus rubra. Red Oak. 

9. Quercus rubra maxima* Largejl Red Oak. 

This often becomes a large tree, of the height of 
feventy or eighty feet and of four, five, or fometimes 
fix feet in diameter; retaining its thicknefs to a con- 
fiderable height, and without lateral branches, but 
fpreading at the top. The leaves arc large, obtufe- 
ly and but lightly finuated, the angles acute, each 
often terminating with feveral acute, briftly points. 
The acorns are large and fomewhat conical, fittiag 
in broad fhallow cups. The timber is ufed for ftaves, 
fliingles, rails, &c. 

10. Quercus rubra ramofiflima. fVater Red Oak. 

This grows mod naturally by creek fides, or in 
low wet places, rifing to the height of a pretty large 
tree; generally thick fet with flender lateral branches, 
and covered with fomewhat fmooth, greyifli colour- 
ed bark. The leaves are fmall, obtufely and deep- 



{ ) 

ly finuated, pretty uniformly, almoft to the midrib; 
the angles or lobes are narrow, acute, and unequal, 
each terminating with feveral briftly points. The 
acorns and cups are fmall. This is generally known 
by the name of Water or Low Land Spanifti Oak, 
The buts of thefe trees are often ufcd for rimming of 
carriage wheels, &c, 

11. QusRCUs rubra montana. Upland Red 

Oak. 

This grows naturally upon higher and poorer land 
than the others, often attaining to fifty or fixty feet 
in height. The bark is fomewhat rough and light- 
ifii coloured. The leaves are deeply and obtufely 
finuated, fomewhat regularly; the angles fomewhat 
bitrifid, or ending in feveral acute, briftly points ; 
their footftalks are pretty long. The acorns and 
cups are middling fized. The timber is generally 
worm eaten, or rotten at heart, therefore of Uttle 
efteem. It is likewife commonly known by the 
name of Spanifti Oak; and, I think, has fome va- 
rieties differing in the fize of their fruit and leaves. 

12. QuERCUs rubra nana. Divarf Barren 

OaL 

This grows naturally upon dry barren ridges, and 
is found from five to ten feet high, generally grow- 
ing very crooked. The leaves are fmaller, but fome- 
what refemble thofe laft defcribed. The acorns and 
cups are fmall, the acorns red at the bafe and ftrip- 
ed when taken firft from their cups. It is called 
barren from its place of growth, but is generally al- 
moft covered with fruit, fitting very clofe on all 
fides of the branches. 



# * # # Quercus 



( 124 ) 



#### Qijercus Phellos. Willow-leaved Oak. 

13. Que Reus Phellos anguftifolia. Narrorv 

JVillow- leaved Oak, 

This grows naturally in low lands, and to the 
height of fifty or fixty feet, with a trunk of confi^^ 
derable fize. The leaves are entire, fmooth, oblong, 
and lance-fhaped, of about three inches in length 
and half an inch in breadth, and have very fliort 
footftalks. The acorns and cups are fmall. The 
timber is found and good. 

1 4. Que r c us Phellos latifolia. Broad Willow-^ 

leaved Oak. 

This tree very much refembles the other in every 
refpefl, except in having leaves of about double the 
width; and broader but perhaps fhorter cups and 
acorns. 

15. QuERCUs Phellos fempervirens. Ever--. 

green Willonv-'leaved Oak. 

This grows naturally in Carolina, becoming a 
pretty large tree, of the height of forty feet or more. 
The leaves are perennial, entire, fomewhat oval, 
fpear-fliaped, of a dark green colour and thick con- 
fiftence. The acorns are fmall, oblong, fitting in 
Ihort cups, and containing a very fweet kernel. 
The timber is hard, tough and coarfe grained. 



# # # # # Quercus 



( ) 



Quercus Prinus. Chefnut-leaved Oak. 

1 6. Quercus Prinus. Chefnut-kaved Oak. 

This grows naturally upon a light gravelly foil, 
frequently to forty feet or more in height, and above 
two feet in diameter; covered with a furrowed, 
lightifh coloured bark. The leaves are iomewhat 
oval and uniformly crenated on their edges, or ra- 
ther fometimes obtufely toothed. The acorns are 
fmooth and large, greenifh coloured and litting in 
(hallow fpreading cups. The timber fomewhat ap- 
proaches towards that of Chefnut in appearance, but 
affords very good fuel, rails, &c. 

17. Quercus Prinus humilis. Dzvarj Chef- 
nut or Chinquepin Oak. 

This generally rifes with feveral fbrubby, fpread- 
ing ftalks, to the height of two or three feet. The 
leaves are fomewhat wedge-fhaped and toothed, or 
flightly and obliquely fmuated. The acorns and 
cups pretty much refemble thofe of the large kind, 
but are confiderably fmaller. 

It may not be improper here to make fome re- 
marks with refpeft to cutting, or felling of timber. 
Long experience, I think, hath fufficiently afcertain- 
ed, that timber cut down in the fpring of the year, 
when full of fap, and the leaves fully expanded; 
and alfo in the third or lafl quarter of the moon's 
age; is much more durable than when cut at any 
other time. Timber when full of fap and vigour, 
in all probabihty, contains alfo more oily particles, 
which, in proportion as they abound, are known to 
add to its durabihty. With regard to the influence 
of the moon, it may probably be accounted a fuper- 

ftitious 



• ( 126 ) 

ftitious or whimfical fancy, but that k materially af- 
fects timber is a faft well known to thofe who ftrip, 
or peel bark for the ufe of tanners; and when ac- 
counted for in one cafe, may probably throw lome 
light upon the other. But further, it is alfo a fad 
well known, that timber, whofe bark has been fuffi- 
ciently feparated and peeled round at the but, in or- 
der for deading, as it is termed; if done in the de- 
creafe of the moon, retains its greennefs often a con- 
fiderable time ; but if in the increafe, withers in a 
much (horter time. From hence, I think, we may 
conclude, that the fap or juice of trees, has a kind 
of monthly circulation, or revolution; afcending in 
the moon's decreafe, but defcending in the increafe. 
However, be this as it may, the falling of timber in 
the diiferent phafis of the moon, is confidently af- 
ferted, from experience, to materially affeft its du- 
rability. 

RHODODENDRUM. 

DWARF ROSE-BAY. 
Clafs 10. Order i. Decandria Monogynia. 

nPHE Empalement is of one leaf, five parted and permanent, 
^ TheCorolla of one leaf, wheel-funnelled : the border fpread- 

ing: the divifions rounded. 
The Filaments ten, thread-form, almoft the length of the co- 
rolla, and declined. The Mherce oval. 
The Germen five cornered, retufe. The Style thread-form, the 

length of the corolla. The Stigma obtufe. 
The Seed'VeJJel ovate, angled, five cell'd. 
The Seeds numerous and fmail. 

We have^ with us^ but one Species, viz. 

Rhopo^ 



( ) 



Rhododendrum maximum. Pennfylvanian 
Mountain Laurel. 

This grows to the height of about fix or eight 
feet, often with feveral ftems from the fame root. 
The leaves are oblong and entire, generally about 
four or five inches in length and one and a half or 
near two in breadth : of a thick confiftence, and 
(hining dark green on the upper fide but lighter un- 
derneath, cotitinuing their verdure all the year* 
The flowers are pretty large and of a pale rofe co- 
lour, ftudded with fpots of a deeper red, having 
their tubes a little bent. They are produced at the 
extremity of the former year's flioots, in roundifli 
clufters, making a beautiful appearance. This is 
much and defervedly efteemed as a very beautiful, 
evergreen, flowering fhrub. 

RHUS. 

SUMACH. 
Clafs 5. Order 3. Pentandria Trigynia, 

THE Empalement is five-parted, beneath, erefl, and perma- 
nent. 

The Corolla of five petals, ovate and a little fpreading. 

The Filaments are five, very lliort. The Jntherce fmall, iTioft- 

er than the corolla. 
The Germe?} above, roundifh, and the iTze of the coroUa. The 

Styles fcarce any. The Stigmas three, hearted, rmall. 
The Seed-veJJsl a berry, roundilli, and of one cell. 
The Seed one, roundilli, bony. 

OhJ, The Toxicodendron has fmooth, ftriated berries ; the 
kern.el comprefled and furrowed. 

1 he Vernix is male and female upon different plants. 

The Glabrum (and perhaps fome others) is female and her- 
maphrodite on different plants. 

The 



i 128 ) 



T^e Species with us^ are^ 

1. Rhus Copallinum. Lentifcus-kaved Sumachs 

This grows to the height of fix, eight, or fome- 
times ten feet, dividing into flender branches, ajid 
covered with fpeckled bark. The leaves are wing- 
ed, and compofed of four or five pair of narrow, 
entire lobes, terminated by an odd one; joined to a 
common footftalk; with decurrent, leaffy cxpanfi- 
ons bctv/een each pair of lobes. The flowers arc 
produced in loofe, .compound panicles, of an her- 
baceous colour, and are fucceeded by reddifh feeds, 
fprinkled with a greyifli pounce. This grows natu- 
rally in a flaty, gravelly foil. The berries are very 
acid. Tiiere are fome varieties of this, much re- 
fembling it but of fmaller growth, and with redder 
berries. 

2. Rhus glabrnm. Smooth Pennfyhanian Su-- 

mach. 

This grows naturally in feveral of the northern 
States, rifing to the height of fix or eight feet, di- 
viding in a few thick, pithy and fomewhat angled 
branches; covered with a fmooth bark. The leaves 
are large and winged, compofed of eight, nine, or 
ten pair of lobes, and an odd one; oblong, point- 
ed and fawed on their edges ; of a pretty deep green 
on thc^ir upper fides, but much lighter underneath 
and changing reddifh in autumn. The flowers are 
henBaphrodite and female on feparate plants, and 
are produced in large, erecl, compounded panicles, 
or thyrfi, terminating the branches; of an herbace- 
ous colour; the herQiaphrodite of which are largefl: 
and barren, but the female .are fucceeded by feeds 
with a red meally covering, of an acid tafte. 

Rhus 



( ) 



Rhus glabrum carolinenfe. Carolinian Scarlet-flower^ 
ing Sumach. 

This is a variety of the laft defcribed, but diflfer- 
ing in having fcarlet flowers. 

Rhus glabrum canadenfe. Canadian Redflozvering 
Sumach. 

This is alfo a variety of the fanie, growing natu- 
rally in Canada, with red flowers. 

3. Rhus typhinuni. Stags-horn Sumach, 

This grows naturally in Virginia and Pennfylva- 
nia, often rifing to the height of twelve or fifteen 
feet, with a trunk of fix or eight inches in diame- 
ter; dividing at the top into feveral branches; which, 
when young, are covered with a foft, velvet-like 
down, refembling that of a young flag's horn, both 
in colour and texture. The leaves are compofed of 
lix or feven pair of oblong lobes, terminated by an 
odd one, ending in acute points, and together with 
the midrib, a little hairy unvierneath. The flowers 
are produced in a clofe, eredl panicle or thyrfus, 
terminating the brarches; they are of an herbace* 
ous colour and are fucceeded by feeds enclofed in a 
purple, woolly, fucculent covering; making a fine 
appearance in the autumn, 

4. Rhus canadenfe. Canadian trifoliate Su^ 
mach. 

This grows naturally in Canada, and perhaps the 
northern parts of Pennfylvania. The fl:ems are flen- 
der, rifing to the height of fix or eight feet, and 
egvered with a brown bark. The leaves are com- 

R pofcd 



( ) 



pofed of three lobes, fomewhat egg-fliaped and 
joined to a common footftalk. The flowers are 
male and female on different plants. 

To this Genus is alfo added^ 
TOXICODENDRON. 

The P I S O N - T R E E. 

Of which we have^ 

I. Rhus-Toxicodendron Vernix. Varnijh-- 
Tree^ or Poifon AJlo. 

This rifes with a pretty ftrong, ereft ftem, to the 
height of twelve or fourteen feet ; dividing towards 
the top into feveral branches. The leaves are wing- 
ed, and compofed of three or four pair of lobes, 
terminated by an odd one ; which are for the mod 
part oval, fpear-fliaped, hnooth, and of a lucid green 
on their upper fide, but paler and a little hairy un- 
derneath; their footftalks changing of a purple co- 
lour in autumn* The male and female flowers are 
produced upon different trees, and are difpofed in 
loofe panicles, coming out from the bofom of the 
leaves ; of an herbaceous colour. The female are 
fucceeded by fmall, roundifli feeds, of a lightifli co- 
lour v/hen ripe. This is allowed to be the fame 
with the true Varnilh-tree of japan; where it is col- 
lefted in great quantities, by making incifions in the 
trees and placing veflels underneath to receive the 
milky juice, which hardens and becomes the true 
varniih; much ufed in various kinds of curious 
workmanfhip. This, in all probability, might be 
collected here equal in quality with that of Japan 
and to confiderable advantage. This tree ought to 

be 



( 131 ) 



be handled with caution, as it is very poifonous to 
many people. 

2 . R H us-To xicoDENDRoN toxicodendnrim . 

Poijbn-Oak. 

This has a low, flirubby ftalk, feldom rifmg above ^ 
three or four feet. The leaves are trifoliate, with 
pretty long footflalks, the lobes are entire, fmooth 
and fomewhat heart-fliaped. The flowers come out 
from the fides of the ftalks, in loofe panicles of an 
herbaceous colour; fmall, and not always herma- 
phrodite. They are fucceeded by roundifh, chan- 
nelled, fmooth berries, of a yellowifli grey colour 
when ripe. 

3. Rhus-Toxicodendron radicans. Poifon- 

Vine. 

This rifes with many flirubby climing ftems, at- 
taching themfelves to every neighbouring fupport; 
and often rifmg to the height of twenty or thirty 
feet, with a ftem of two or three inches in diameter; 
fending off many branches. The leaves are trifoli- 
ate, and have pretty long footftalks : the lobes are 
fomewhat oval and pointed, often fomewhat toothed. 
The flowers are produced in ftiort panicles from the 
fides of the branches, and are fucceeded by round* 
ifli berries, of a brownifli colour when ripe. 

R I B E S. 

The CURRANT-BUSH. 
Clafs 5. Order i. Pentandria Monogynia. 

T^HE Empalement is of one leaf, part five-cleft and bellied; 
A the divifions oblong, concave, coloured, reflexed and 
pennanenc. The 



( 132 ) 

The Corona is of five petals, fmall, obtufe and ereft, adjoined 
to the margin of the empalement. 

The Filaments are liv£, awl-fhaped, ere6l and inferted in the 
calyx, i he Jntherce are incumbent, compreffed, and gap- 
ing at the margin. 

The Germen roundifli and beneath. The Style bifid. The Stig- 
mas obtufe. 

The Seed-vejjel a berry, globous, umbilicated and of one cell, 

with two receptacles, lateral, oppofite and longitudinal* 
The Seeds many, roundilli, and fomewhat compreffed. 

The Species J, with us^ are^ 

* Ribefia inermia. CurranuTrees. 

I. RiBEs nigrum pennfylvanicum. FennfyU 
'vanian Black Currants. 

This grows to the height of the common cuhivat- 
ed Currant, but the ftalks are generally more flen- 
der and covered with a darkifh, fmooth bark. The 
leaves have the fame refemblance but are fmaller. 
The flowers grow in loole bunches, and are fucceed- 
ed by oblong, black fruit when ripe. 

* * GrolTularias aculeatae. Goofe-berries. 

RiBEs oxycanthoides. Mountain Wild Goofe-- 
berry. 

Thefe grow to the fize of the common Goofe ber- 
ry, but have fmaller ftems and not branching fo much; 
but near the earth are often prickly on all fides. The 
leaves are fmaller but have the fame appearance. The 
fruit is alfo much fmaller but of an agreeable tafle 
when ripe. This either by a little culture becomes 
fmooth, otherwife we have a different kind, not 
more prickly ihau the common/ 



3. RlBES 



( 133 ) 



3. RiBEs cynofbati. Prickly fruited Wild 
Gooft-berry. 

This sfrows naturally in Canada and the upper 
parts of Pennfylvania; and much refembles the other, 
except in having its fruit covered on all fides with 
foftilh prickles. 

R O B I N I A. 

ROBINIA, or FALSE-ACACIA. 
Clafs 17. Order 3. Diaclelphia Decandria. 

HTHE Empalement is of one leaf, fmall, bell-fhaped, and four^ 
toothed : the three inferior (lender ; the fuperior fourth 
of double the width, and flightly emarginated; all equal 
in length. 
The Corolla Butterfly-lTiaped. 

ThQ Standard roundilh, large, fpreading and obtufe. 
The IVings oblong, ovate, free; with very lliort, obtufe ap- 
pendages. 

The KeeL almofl femi-orb'culate, compreffed, obtufe, and 
the length of the wings. 
The Stamina are Filaments in t;wo fets, or bodies,- ("one fimple, 

the other nine-cleft) rifing above. 1 he Antherce roundilh. 
The Germen cylindrical, oblong. T he Style thread-form, bent 

upward. The Stigma villous before at the apex of the llylc. 
The Seed'VeJfel large, comprelTed, gibbous, and long. 
The Seeds few, kidney-foim. 

The Species with us, arcy 

J. RoBiNiA Pfeud- Acacia. White fiowerhig 
Robinia^ or Loaifi-Tree. 

This grows naturally in feveral of thefe States; 
rifing to the height of forty or fifty feet, with a 
trunk of eighteen or twenty inches in diameter, di- 
viding 



( 134 ) 

vicling inlo many branches which are armed with 
Ihort, itrong Ipines. The bark is darkifli coloured 
and rough. The leaves are winged and generally 
compofed of eight or ten pair of fmall, oval lobes, 
terminated by an odd one; entire, of a bright green 
and fitting clofe to the midrib. The flowers are pro- 
duced from the fides of the branches in long pendu- 
lous bunches, each having a feparate footftalk; they 
are white, of a butterfly fliape and fweet fmelhng ; 
and are fucceeded by compreflTed pods, of three or 
four inches in length and half an inch in width, con- 
taining feveral hard, kidney-lhaped feeds. The tim- 
ber is very durable, and ufed for pofl:s to fet in the 
earth, and other purpofes ; therefore, the propaga- 
tion of it might be well worthy of attention. Its 
natural place of growth is ^in a rich moifl: foil* 

2. RoBiNiA rofea. Ro/e coloured Robinia. 

This fpreads much from its running roots, fend- 
ing up weak branching ftalks, to the height of fix or 
eight feet, but often flowering much fmaller. The 
ij^hole plant, with the footftalks of the leaves and 
ilovvers^ are clofely armed with foft, purplifli fpines. 
The leaves are v/inged and compofed of five or fix 
oair of oval, concave lobes, terminated by an odd 
one, v/ith their midribs protruding in fliort brifl:ly 
points. The flowers are larger than thofe of the 
other kind and of "a Peach bloflfom colour, with 
their ftarnina diftindly in two bodies; whereas thofe 
of the other are frequently all joined at the bafe. 
This is a beautiful flowering flirub, fometimes flow- 
eriog twice or more in a feafon, but feldom produc- 
ing feeds. There are feveral other varieties differ- 
ing fomcwbat in their pods or colour of their flow- 
ers. 



ROSA. 



( 135 ) 



ROSA. 

The R O S E - B U S H. 
Clafs 12. Order 5. Icofaiidria Polygyiiia. 

T^HE Empalement is of one leaf. The tube bellied; narrow- 
ed at the neck; the border [pyezdlng, five parted and glo- 
bous: the divifions long, narrow and pointed. 
ThQ Corolla is compofed of five petals, heaa-t-lTiaped, the length 

of the empalement, and inferted in its neck. 
The Stamina are very many, capillary, very Ihort, and infcrtcJ 

in the neck of the empalement. The Stigmas obtufe. 
The Seed-vejjel is fielTiy, top-iibaped, coloured, and of one 
cell. 

The Seeds numerows, oblong, hairy, and joined within on n.'^ 
fides of the Seed-vefTeL 

The Species 5 native with iis^ are^ 

1. Rosa carolinenfis. Wild Virginian Ro;'^. 

This rifes with feveral ftalks to the height of five 
or fix teet, fomewhat prickly, as are alfo the foot- 
ftalks of the leaves and flowers. The leaves are 
compofed of four or five pair of lobes terminated 
with an odd one, which are fomewhat fpear-fhaped 
and fawed on their edges. The flowers are fingle, 
of a red colour and late coming. 

2, Rosa palviflris. Swmnp Pennfylvanian 

Rofc. 

This grows generally in fwamps; rifing to the 
height of four or five feet, with ereft, and very 
prickly ftems, branching out at top in a regular 
head. The leaves are compofed of three pair of 
lobes, terminated by an odd one, of an oblong, oval 



( 136 ) 

fliape and fltghtly ferrated, joined to a common 
footftalk with a few fpines underneath. The flowers 
are fingle and of a damaflc colour; the hips or feed* 
veffels are of a dark red, roundifli, depreffed, prick- 
ly or briftly, and very clammy to the touch. 

3. Rosa humilis. Dwarf Pennfylvanian Rofe. 

This rifes with feveral flender ftems to the height 
of two or three feet ; covered with a brownifh green 
bark, and armed with a few fharp fpines. I'he leaves 
are compofed of. three or four pair of lobes, and an 
odd one, of an oblong egg-fhape and (harply fawed 
on their edges. The leaves of the flower cup have 
often linear, leafFy elongations. The flowers are 
fingle and of a pale reddifh colour. 



4. Rosa pennfylvanica plena. Double Penn-* 
fylvanian Roje. 

This very much refembles the lafl; defcribcd in 
growth and appearance, except in having a double 
flower. 

R U B U S. 



The RASPBERRY BUSH and BRAMBLE. 



Clafs 12. Order 5. Icofaiidria Polygynia. 

T^HE Empalement is of one leaf, five-parted: the divifions 

oblong, fpreading and permanent. 
The Corolla is of five petals, roundilTi, fomewhat fpreading, of 

the length of the Empalement and inferted into it. 
The Filaments are numerous Ihorter than the petals, and in- 

ferted in the Empalement. The Anthem are roundilTi and 

comprefTed. 

The Germen are numerous. The Styles fmall, capillary, and 
arifing from the fides of the germen. The Stigmas fimple 
and permanent. Tfee 



( i'37 ) 



The Seed'VeJlJel a compound berry : the aeini roundiih, coUeft- 
ed in a convex head, concave beneath ; and each with one 
ceil. 

The Seeds folitary and oblong; their receptacle conical. 
Jhe Species, with us^ are^ 

1. Rub US fruticofus. Common Blackberry 

Bujh. 

This rifes generally ( with feveral ftalks from the 
fame root) to the height of four or five feet, but 
fometimes to eight or ten : which are fomewhat an- 
gled, and pretty thick fet with fharp prickles. The 
leaves are compofed of thr^e lobes, the fide ones of 
which are often divided ; moftly egg-ftiaped, point- 
ed, acutely and unequally fawed on their edges, a 
Uttle hairy underneath, and joined to a pretty long 
prickly footftalk, the middle one extending fome 
little diftance from the others. This is generally 
well furniihed with flowers, which often ftand upoa 
panicled, or divided footftalks^ and are fucceedcd 
by black fruit when ripe. 

2. Rub us hifpidus* American Dewberry Bujlj. 

This is much fmaller than the other, having feve- 
ral flender weak ftems, which often trail on the 
ground to a confiderable diftance. The leaves very 
much rcfemble thofe of the Blackberry, but are ge- 
nerally fmaller. The fruit is alfo fmaller, rounder 
and blacker ; and fupported upon long, fimple, prick* 
ly footftalks# 

3. RUBUJV 

S 



( ) 



3. RufitJS canadenfis. Smooth Jialked Canadian 

Bramble. 

This is faid to grow in Canada with purplilh ftalks 
without prickles-. The leaves are fingered; com- 
pofed of ten, five, and three lobes, which are very 
flender, lance-fhaped, and fliarply ferrated. 

4. Rub us occidentalis. American Rafpberry. 

' This rifes with a round prickly ftalk, of feven or 
eight feet in length, which often dcfcends again to 
the earth in a femi-circular manner, fometimes tak- 
ing root. The ftalks are covered with a thin bluifli 
fcum or mift, and furniflied with trifoHate leaves. 
The lobes are fomewhat heart, or egg-lhaped ; ctit" 
and fawed on their edges, whitifli and downy under- 
neath, the lateral ones fometimes divided, the com- 
mon footftalk pretty long, and the middle or termi- 
nal lobe a little fubtended. The flowers are produ- 
ced at the extremity of the branches in a kind of ra- 
cemus^ or bunch, and are fucceeded by fmall fruit of 
a reddifli black colour when ripe; the acini of which 
are joined, parting entire from the conical receptacle. 

5. Rub us ddoratus. Virginian Rofe-floivering 

. ifiio ' Rajpherry. 

This rifes with upright woody ftalks, without 
prickles, to the height of three or four feet, cover- 
ed with a brown fcaly bark. The leaves are fingle, 
large, paimated or divided into five or more pointed 
lobes, fliarply Tawed on their edges, a little hairy, 
and joined to pretty long^ hairy footftalks. The 
flowers are proauced in a kind of panicle at the ex- 
tremity of the branches, of a curdled reddifli colour; 

refembling 



( 139 ) 

refembling a fmall fingle Rofe, both in their petals, 
and divifions of their flower cups which are villous, 
and terminate in leafFy elongations. This grows na- 
turally on rocky mountains in Pennfylvania and Vir- 
ginia, and makes an agreeable appearance by a long 
fucceffion of rofe-fliaped flowers. 

S A L I X. 

The W I L L O W - T R E E. 
Clafs 22. Order 2, Dioecia Diandria. 

THE Male Flowers are difpofed in a common, oblong, im- 
bricated katkin, with an involucrum formed of the bud. 
The Scales are one-flowered, oblong, plain, and fpread- 
ing. 

It hath no petals; but a very fmall, cylindrical, truncat- 
ed, honey- bearing Gland, or Neftarium, in the cen- 
ter of the flower. 
The Filaments are two, ftraight, and thread form. The Jii- 

therce are twin, and four-cell' d. 
*The Female have a katkin and fcales as the male. 

The Petals none. 
The Germen ovate, and lefTened into a Stjle fcarce diftindl, fome- 
what longer than the Scales of the flower-cup. The Stigmas 
two, bifid and erect. 
The Seed'vejjel a capfiile^ ovate-awl-fhaped, of one cell and two 

valves : the valves revolute. 
The Seeds are numerous, ovate, very fmall, and crowned with 
a fimple hairy Pappus. 

The Species, native with us^ arc^ 

* With fniooth ferraied leaves. 

I. Salix nigra. Rough American Willoiv. 

This rifes often with a leaning or crooked trunk 
to the height of about twijnty feet, covered with a 

dark 



( HO > 

dark coloured, rough bark. The leaves are fmooth 
and of equal colour on both fides j narrow, lance- 
fliaped, and very flightly ferrated. The kaikins arc 
long and flender. 

With ferrated vHlofe leaves. 

2. Salix fericea. Ozkr^ or Silky leaved Wil-- 

low. 

This rifes generally to the height of eight or ten 
feet, with many fhrubby ftalks, covered with pretty 
fmooth, dark, greenifti bark. The leaves are fhort* 
er and fomewhat broader than the other kind, lance- 
fhaped, filky underneath, and very ftightly ferrated 
on the edges. 

# # # JT/'/yb entire vilkfe kams. 

3. Salix humilis. Dnvarf Willow. 

This feldom rifes above three or four feet, with 
greenifh, fomewhat downy ftalks. The leaves arc 
larger than the other kind&, entire, oblong, fome- 
what oval, and glaucous or whitifh underneath. 
There are fome varieties of larger growth, belong- 
ing either to this or the laft mentioned kind.. 

SAMBUCUS. 

The E L D E R ^ T R E 

Clafs 5. Order 3. Pentandria Trigynia. 

nPHE Empalement is of one leaf, above, very fmall, five-part- 

ed) and permanent. 
7 he Corolla is of one petal, concave wheel-lhaped,. part five- 
cleft, obtufe, the divifions reflexed. 

The 



( ui ) 

The Filaments five, awl-fhaped, the length of the corolla. The 

Anthem roundifli 
The Germen beneath, ovate, obtufe. The Style none, but Ui 

its place a bellied Gland. TheStiginas three, obtufe. 
The Seed'vejfel a roundifh berry of one cell. 
The Seeds three, angular on one fide and convex on the other. 

The Species, with us, are, 

1. Sambucus nigra. American Black-berried 

Elder. 

This rifes generally to the height of fix or eight 
feet, with a ftem fometimes of two or three inches 
in diameter. The leaves are generally compofed of 
three pair of lobes and an odd one, which are fome- 
what oval, pointed, fliarply fawed on their edges, 
a little hairy on both fides, hght coloured under- 
neath and joined to pretty large, channelled foot- 
ftalks, placed oppofite* The flowers are produced 
at the extremities of the fame year's fhoois in a kind 
of umbel, of five principal parts, again divided: 
they are white and are fucceeded by berries which 
are blackifli when ripe. An infufion of the inner 
bark is purgative. From the berries may be pre- 
pared a fpirit, a wine, and an oil, which promote 
urine, perfpiration and fweat. 

2. Sambucus canadenfis. Canadian Red-her" 

vied Elder. 

This grows naturally upon Mountain fides, or 
moift, rich, (haded places, in the back parts of Penn- 
fylvania. It has much the appearance of the other 
kind, but produces red berries, which are ripe the 
latter end of June, at the time the other is in flower. 



SMILAX. 



( H2 ) 



S M I L A X. 

ROUGH BINDWEED, or GREEN BRIAR. 

Clafs 2 2. Order 6. Dioecia Hexandria. 

^'HTHE Mds h^ve Empalements of fix leaves, of a fpreading 
^ bell-lliape; the leaves are oblong, joined at the bafe, 
fpreading and reflexed at the apex. 
The Corolla none. 

The Filaments are fix, fimple. The- AnthercB oblong. 
*The Female have Empalements as the male, deciduous. 
The Corolla none. 

The Germen ovate. The St^jks three, very fmall. he Stigmas. 

oblong, reflexed, downy. , 
The Seed'vejjel a globofe berry, of three cells. 
The Seeds two, globofe. 

The Species, with us^ are^ 

* With a fqmre prickly fiem. 

1. Smilax Sarfaparilla. Kry leaved rough 

Bindiveedy or Sarfaparilla. 

This grows naturally in Virginia and to the fouth- 
-ward, rifing up with prickly, angular ftalks. The' 
leaves are without prickles^ oval fliaped, pointed, 
and three nerved, 

2. Smilax virginiana. Lanceolate-leaved 

rough Bmdweed. 

The ftalks of this are flender, angular and prickly. 
The leaves are without fpines, fpear-lhaped and 
pointed ; their bafes not eared. 



With 



( 143 ) 

With a round prickly jlenu 

3. Smilax rotundifolia. Canadian round 

leaved Smilax. 

The ftalks of this are round and winding, with a 
few ftraivht fpines. The leaves are heart-ftiaped, 
without fpines, five-nerved, having fliort footftalks 
with two flender clafpers. 

4. Smilax kurifolia. Bay leaved rough Bind- 

weed. 

This hath a round flalk, armed with prickles 01 
fpines. The leaves are of an oval lance-fhape, with- 
out fpines, and of thicker confiftence than thofe of 
the other fpecies. The flowers are fmall and whit- 
ifli, the berries black when ripe. 

5. Smilax tamnoides. Bryony leaved rough 

Bindweed. 

The ftems of this^^airfe-^ armed %ith prickles arid 
round ; climing upon the neighbouririg trees for fup- 
port. The leaves are without' fpines, of an oblong 
heart-fhape and five nerved. The berries are black.- 

6. Smilax caduca. Three-^nervtd^leaved rough 

Bindweed. 

This rifes with round, naked, winding ftalks, 
armed with many ftraight, black pointed fpines and 
covered with a green bark. The leaves are ovate, 
pointed, three nerved and annual. The berries 
black. 



With 



( 144 ) 



With a fquare fmootb Jlem^ 

7. Sm I L A X bona nox. Carolinian prickly leav^ 

ed Smilax. 

The ftalks of this are angular and without fpincs. 
The leaves are broad, and ciliated or fet upon the 
margin with fpines. There is alfo a variety with 
narrow rough leaves, eared at the bafe and angular. 

With a fmooih round Jievu 

8. Smilax lanceolata. Red berried Virginian. 

Smilax. 

The ftalks of this arc fmooth and round. The 
leaves are without fpines and lance-fhaped. The 
berries red coloured. 

9. Smilax Pfeudo China. Bajlard China. 

This hath fmooth round ftalks. The leaves are 
without fpines, thofe on the ftalks heart-ftiaped, but 
on the branches lance^ftaped. The berries are black 
and fupported on very long footftalks. 

S O R B U S. 

The SERVICE TREE, QUICKBEAM, or MOUNTAIN ASE 
Clafs 12. Order 3. Icofandria Trigynia. 

TP HE Empalement is of one leaf, concave-fpreading, five- 
^ parted and permanent. 

The Corolla is of five petals, roundifli, concave and inferted in 

the Empalement. 
The Filaments twenty, awl-fliaped, and inferted i^ the Empale- 

ment. The Anthem roundiih. 

The 



( H5 ) 

The Gemen beneath* The Styles three, thread-form, and 

ereft. The Stigmas headed. 
The Seed'VeJJel a berry, foft, globofe, and uiiibilicated. 
The three, fomewhat oblong, diftinft, and cartilaginous, 

The Species, with us^ but one^ viz. 

So REUS americana. American Service Tree. 

This grows naturally upon the mountains towards 
Canada; rifing to the height of about fifteen or eigh- 
teen feet, with an eredl ftem dividing into feveral 
branches. The leaves are winged, compofed of 
eight or nine pair of lobes, terminated by an odd 
one; which are narrow and fawed on their edges* 
The flowers are produced at the extremity of the 
branches in form of an umbel, and are fucceeded by 
roundifti berries of a red colour when ripe^ 

S P I R iE Ae 

S P I R ^ A. 
Clafs 12. Order 4. Icofandria Pentagynia. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, half five-cleft, and plane 
at the bafe: the divifions acute; permanent. 
The Corolla of five petals, oblong-rounded, and inferted in the 
calyx. 

The Filaments above twenty, thread-form, fliorter than the co- 
rolla, and inferted in the calyx. The Anthem roundifti. 

The Gemen five or more. The Styles as many, thread-form, 
and the length of the Stamina. The Stigmas headed. 

The Seed-vejjels capfules, oblong, lliarp-pointed, compreffed 
and two valved. 

The Seeds few, lliarp-pointed and fmall. 
OhJ, S. opulifolia has three Styles. 



The 



{ 146 ) 



The Species, ivith us, are^ 

1. Spir-^:a hypericifolia. Canadian Spir^ea^ br 

Hyper icum-f rut ex. 

This rifes generally to the height of four or five 
feet, dividing into many flender branches, and co- 
vered with a dark brown bark. The leaves are ob- 
long, entire, and finooth, refembling thofe of St. 
John's-wort, and placed oppofite. The flowers are 
yellovi^, and difpofed in fmall umbels, fitting clofe 
to the (talks, each having a long, flender footfl:alk; 
and are fucceeded by oblong, pointed capfules, filled 
with fmall feeds. This makes a very good appear- 
ance when in flower. 

2, SpiRitA opulifolia. Guelder Rofe-leaved 

Spir^aj or Nine-Bark. 

This rifes with many flirubby branching ftalks, 
covered with a brown fcaly bark, to the height of 
five or fix feet. The leaves are fomewhat three 
i parted, the two fide divifions or lobes fmall, obtufe 
and near the bafe; the middle one large and point- 
ed ; they are alfo flightly crenated and fawed on their 
edges. The flowers are produced at the extremity 
of the branches, in form of a corymbus orclufl:er: 
they are white with fome fpots of pale red, and 
are fucceeded by clufl:ers of greenifli, inflated cap- 
fules. 

Spir^a caroliniana. Carolinian Guelder Rofe-leaved 
Spiraa. 

This is a variety of the former, and refcmbles it 
much in growth and appearance. 



( 147 ) 



3- Spir-^a tomeiitofa. Scarlet flowered ThiladeU 
pbian Spiraa. 

This grows naturally in Pennfylvania; rifing with 
flender, branching ftalks to the height of three or 
four feet, having a purple bark, covered with a 
grey meally down. The leaves are fmall, fpear- 
fliaped, unequally fawed on their edges, of a bright 
green on their upper fides, but downy and veined 
underneath. The flowers terminate the branches in 
form of a racemus or bunch ; they are fmall and of 
a beautiful red colour. 

4. SpiRiEA tomentofa alba. White flowered Phila" 
de/phian Spiraa. 

This is a variety of the former; rifing with flen- 
der ftalks to the height of four or five feet. The 
leaves are fmall, and of thin texture, of an oblong 
oval, or fomewhat wedge fliape, flightly and fliarp- 
ly fawed on their edges, and a little downy on both 
fides. The flowers are produced in manner of the 
former, of a beautiful white, making a pretty ap-? 
pearance. This is called Indian Pipe Shank, fronx 
the pithy fl:ems being ufed by the natives for that 
purpofe. 

STAPHYLjEA. 
b l a d d e r - n u t . t r e e. 
' Clafs 5. Order 3. Pentandria Trigynia. 

THE Empalement is five-parted, concave, roundilTi, colour- 
ed, and almofl: the fiz,e of the corolla. 
The Corolla is five petard, oblong, erefl, and like the calyx. 
The NeEtariim concave and pitchcv-lliape in the bottain of 
the flower. 

The 



( H8 ) 



The Stamina are five, oblong, erefl, and the length of the 

calyx. The Anther ce fimple. 
f he Germen thickifh, three-parted. The Styles three, fimple 

and a little longer than the (lamina. The Stigmas obtufe 

and contiguous. 

The Seed-vejfel three Capfules, inflated, flaccid, joined by lon- 
. gitudinal futures; and with pointed tops gaping inwardly. 
The Seeds are few, hard, and roundifli, joined to the interior 
futures. 



The Species, with hut onCy viz. 

STAPHYLi^iA trifoliata. Three-leaved Blad-^ 
der-nut-Tree. 

This rifes generally to the height of eight or ten 
feet, dividing into many branches, placed oppofite. 
The bark of the ftem and old branches are of a 
greyifli colour, but of the young fhoots of a light 
green. The leaves are trifoliate, the middle lobe 
having a footftalk; the lobes are oval, lance-fliaped, 
flightly and fharply fawed on their edges, and jomed 
to pretty long common footftalk^, placed oppofite. 
The flowers are produced upon pretty long, panicled 
footftalks ; they are white and are fucceeded by 
pretty large, three-fided bladders or capfules, en- 
clofmg a few roundifh, hard feeds. 

S T E W A R T I A. 



S T E W A R T I A. 
Clafs 1 6. Order 5. Monadelphia Polyandria, 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, five parted and fpreading; 
the divifions ovate, concave, and permanent. 
The Corolla confifts of five petals, inverfe-ovate, fpreading, 
equal and large. 

The 



( m ) 



The Filaments ZYemmQxous, filiform, lliorter than the coroifag, 
joined in a cylinder below, and to the petals at the b.afe. 
The Anthem are roundilla and incumbent. 

The Germen roundifli and hairy. The St^le nliform, the length 
of the Stamina, The Stigma five cleft. 

The Seed-vejfel a juicelefs pome, five lobed, and five cell'd. 

The Seeds are folitary, ovate and comprelFed. 

The Species but one^ viz. 

Stewartia Malacodendron. Virginian Stewartia. 

This grows naturally in Virginia ; rifing with 
ftrong ftems to the height of ten or twelve feet, and 
covered with ^ brown bark. The leaves are oval 
and fomewhat fpear-fhaped, moft flightly ferrated 
and villofe un4erneath. The flowers are large and 
white, produced fingly, and fitting clofe upon the 
fmall branches, The feed-veffels are dry, fomewhat 
conical, ligneous capfules, having five fliarp angles, 
and five cells, each containing one oblong fmooth 
feed. This niakes a beautifi>l appearance when well 
filled w^ith its large white flowers. 

S T Y R A X. 

The S T O R A X - T R E E, 
Clafs II. Order i. Dodecandria Monogynia, 

nPHE Empalement is of one leaf, cylindrical, ere6>, lliort and 
five-toothed. 

The Corolla is of one petal, funnel-form. The tube is iliort, 
cylindrical, and the length of the calyx. The border five- 
parted, large and fpreading : the divifions lancc-lTiaped and 
obtufe. 

The Filaments are erccl, placed in a circle, more than twelve, 
fcarce joined at the bafe, awl-fhaped and inferted in the co- 
rolla. The Anther(je are oblong and ftraight. 

The 



( ) 



The Germen beneath. The S'fy/e finiple, the length of the fta- 

mina. The Stigma lopped. ' 
The Seed-vejjel a drupCy roiindifh and of one cell. 
The Seeds two nuts, roundiili, pointed, convex on one fide 

and plane on the other. 

The SpecieSj with us^ but one^ viz, 

Styrax americana. Carolinian Storax-Trce. 

This grows naturally i.n Carolina; rifmg with a 
pretty ftrong ftem to the height of ten or twelve feet, 
covered with a linooth brownifli bark, and dividing 
into many flender branches. The leaves are pretty 
large, oval fliaped, a little pointed, fcarce obfervably 
toothed, of a deep green, and a httle downy on the 
upper furface, but lighter and much more downy 
underneath; having Ihort footftalks, which together 
with the young flioots, are alfo woolly or downy. 
The flowers are produced upon the fmall branches, 
in a kind of racemus or bunch; fupporting a fev/ 
fcattered flowers, which are white, pendulous, and 
have each ten fl:amina and fomewhat the fragrance 
of an Orange flower. They are fucceeded by round- 
ifh feed-veffels, each containing two roundifli, point- 
ed nuts or feeds. 

T A X U S. 

The yew-tree. 
Clafs 22. Order 12. Dioecia Monadelphia. 

*'T^HS Male Flowers have no Empalements, but a bud of four 

^ leaves foin^what like one. 
They have no Corolla, 

The Filaments are numerous, joined beneath in a column, and 
longer than the bud. The Anthem are depreffed, obtufe at 
the margin, eight-cleft, gaping on every fide at the baf^ 

(and 



i ( i 151 ) 



(and having cafl their farina) plane, targetted, and remarka- 
ble for their eight-cleft margin. 

* The Female Empalements are as in the Male. 

They have no Corolla, 

The Gemen is ovate and pointed. The Style none. The Stig^ 
ma obtufe. 

The Seed-vejjel is formed of the lengthened receptacle, into a 
globofe, fuccuient, coloured covering or berry, open at top. 

The Seed one, oblong-ovate, the apex protruding out of the 
berry. 

We have^ native but one Species, viz. 

Taxus canadenfis. Canadian Tew-Tree. 

This fhrub is of low growth, but divided into 
many branches fpreading on every fide. The leaves 
are narrow, ftiff, hnear, pointed, and evergreen ; 
thick fet upon all fides of the branches, but inclin- 
ing upwards. The flowers come out thick upon the 
fides of the branches and are fucceeded by oval, 
red, fuccuient berries, open at top, and enclofing 
an oval brown feed. This is a beautiful evergreen 
flirub, capable of being formed into any fliape. 

T H U Y A. 

ARBOR VITiE, or TREE OF LIFE. 
Clafs 21. Order 9. Monoecia Monodelphia. 

*nnHE Male Flowers are difpofed in oval katkins, and are 
placed upon a common footftalk in triple oppofition ; 
each one having for its bafe 
A Scale fomewhat ovate, concave and obtufe. 
No Corolla, but ^ 

Four Filaments in each flower, fcarce manifeft, and as' many 
Antlierce^ adjoined to the bafe of the fcaly cup. 

*The Female flowers are upon the fame plant, In fomewhat 
ovate Cones, compofed of oppofite Scales, which are two 
flowered, ovate and convex. 

No 



( ) 



No CoroUa. 

The Germen is very final!. The Style ax^l-fliaped. The Stigwta 
fimple. 

The Seed'vejjel a Cone, oblong-ovate, obtufe, and gaping lon- 
gitudinally : the Scales are oblong, nearly equal, convex out- 
wardly and obtufe. 

The Seeds are oblongs begirt longitildinaily with a merrfbrana- 
ceous, end -bitten wing. 

The Species, with us^ but one\ viz. 

Thuya occidentalis. American Arbor Vit^. 

This grows naturally in Canada, and other north- 
ern parts of America; rifing to the height of thirty 
or forty feet, with a pretty ftrong ftem, fending off 
many branches, which are produced irregularly and 
ftand almoft horizontally. The bark of young trees 
is of a dark brown and fmooth, but afterward be- 
comes cracked and lefs fmooth. The young branch- 
es are flat, and covered with very fmall leaves, lying 
over each other like fcales of fifli. The cones are 
fmall and loofe, containing but few oblong, winged 
feeds. 

Thuya variegata. Striped leaved Arbor Vit^e. 

This is a variety of the full:, differing in having 
ftriped or variegated leaves. 

Thuya odorata. American Swcet-fcented Arbor Vita. 

This is alfo a variety of the fame, agreeing with 
it in growth and appearance ; but differing in its 
leaves or fmall branches, being of an agreeable, or 
fweet fcent, when bruifed. 



T I L I A. 



( 153 ) 



T I L I A. 

The LIME, or LINDEN-TREE. 
Clafs 13. Order 6. Polyandria Hexagynia* 

EE Empalement is five Y)2iYted, concave, coloured, almofl 
the length of the coroll^^, and deciduous. 
The Corolla is of five petals, oblong, obtufe and notched at the 
end. 

The Filaments are many, (thirty and upwards) awl-fhaped, and 

the length of the corolla. The Antherce are fimple. 
The Germen roundilli. The Style filiform, the length of the 

ftamina. The Stigma obtufely five-fided. 
The Seed-veJJel a Capfule^ coriaceous, globofe, five-cell'd, five- 

valved, and gaping at the bafe. 
The Seed folitary and roundilli. 

Obf. The Capfule appears to have but one cell and one feed, 
the other four being abortive. 

The American Tilia has five Scales placed round the bud 
and joined to the claws of the corolla. 

The Species with us^ are^ 

I. TiLiA americana. American black Linie^ or 
Linden-Tree. 

This often becomes a tree of a large fize, covered 
with a dark brown bark, and dividing into many 
branches. The leaves are large, heart-fhaped, point- 
ed, and fawed on their edges, of a deep green on 
their upper fides, but paler and a little hairy under- 
neath; and (landing on long footftalks. The flow- 
ers are produced upon the fitiall branches, and are 
remarkable for having an oblong bradea or floral 
leaf upon each footftalk; they are of an herbaceoUvS 
colour, having narrow petals furniflied with nefta- 
ries at the bafe. The capfules are round, a little 

hairy 

U 



( 154 ) 



hairy and about the fize of a fmall pea, having each 
one roundifti feed. 

2. TiLiA caroliniana. Carolinian oblique-leaved 
Lime-Tree. 

This is of fmaller growth than the former, rifing 
commonly to the height of about forty feet, with a 
trunk of eighteen inches or more in diameter: co- 
vered with a hghtiih and fomewhat furrowed bark, 
and fending off many branches. The leaves are 
fmaller and fmoother than thofe of the other kind, 
fomewhat heart-ftiaped, ending in long points, un- 
equal at the bafe, or larger on one fide ot the midrib 
than the other, and llightly fawed on their edges. 
The bunches of flowers ftand upon long flender 
footftalks, furnifhed with floral leaves. The flow- 
ers are fmall, and have narrow, pointed petals, fur- 
niftied with ne£laries or fcales at the bafe ; they dif- 
fufe a fragrant odour, and are continually haunted 
by bees during their continuance. An infufion of 
the flowers of Lime-tree has been ufed with fuccefs 
in an Epilepfy. The timber is too foft for any fl:rong 
purpofes, therefore, chiefly ufed by turners, carvers, 
&c. alfo, by architefts in framing models of build- 
ings, &c. 

T I L L A N D S I A. 

T I L L A N D S I A. 
Clafs 6. Order i. Hexandria Monogynia. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, three-parted, oblong and 
permament: the divifions oblong-lanced, and Aarp- 
pointed. 

The Corolla tubiilous and of one petal. The tube long and bel- 
lied. The border three-cleft, obtufe, ere6l and fmall. 

The 



( 155 ) 



The Filaments are fix, as long as the tube of the corolla. The 
Jnthem acute, and incumbent in the neck of the corolla. 

The Gemen is oblong, and pointed on every fide. The Style 
filiform, and the length of the ftamina. The Stigma three- 
cleft and obtufe. ; ^ 

The Seed-vejfel a Capfiiky which is long, obtufely three]^]id^ed,. 
pointed with about one cdl and three valves. ^ 

The Seeds are many, joined to a very long, capillary pappus 6r 
down. 

The Species, with us, but one^ viz. 

TiLLANDsiA ufneoides. Carolinian Tillandfta, 

This is a parafite plant ; or growing upon the 
branches of trees and hanging down with veryflcn- 
der, rough, branching threads or ftalks, in manner 
of mofs. The leaves are whitifli aud hoary, 

U L M U S. 

The E L M . T R E E. 
Clafs 5. Order 2. Pentrandria Digynia. 

THE Empalement is of one leaf, top-fliaped, and wrinkled. 
ThQ border five parted, ereft, coloured within, and per- 
manent. 
The Corolla none. 

The Filaments five, awl-lhaped, and twice the length of the 
calyx. The y^^t/^^rcg four-furrowed, erect and lliort. 

The Germen orbicular and ereft. The Styles two, fliorter than 
the fl:amina and reflexed. The Stigmas downy. 

The Seed'VejJel a drupCy oval comprelled, membranaceous and 
juicelefs. 

The Seed one, roundifli and lightly compf effed. 4 



fbe Species, with usy are^ 



!• Ulmus 



( 156 ) 



I. Ulmus americana. A?nerican rough leaved Elm- 
Tree. 

This rifes to the height of about thirty feet, with 
a pretty ftrong trunk; dividing into many branches, 
and covered with a lightifh coloured rough bark. 
The leaves are oblong, oval and fharp pointed, 
fomewhat unequally fawed on their edges, unequal 
at the bafe, very rough on their upper furface and 
hairy underneath. The flowers are produced thick 
upon the branches, upon fhort, collefted footftalks;; 
and are fucceeded by oval, compreffed, membrana- 
ceous feed-veflels, with entire margins ; containing 
each one oval, comprefl'ed feed. 

2. Ulmus mollifolia. American foft-leaved Elm. 

This grows to the fame fize, or perhaps larger 
than the firft kind, The leaves are of an oblong 
oval, fharp.pointed, unequal at the bafe, doubly 
ferrated on their edges and hairy underneath : but 
fmooth on the upper furface, of thinner texture and 
fofter than thofe of the firft kind. The feed-veflels 
are alfo confiderably fmaller, end nicked or cleft, 
5fnd ciliated or fringed on the margin, 

V A C C I N 1 U M. 

WHORTLE-BERRY. 
Clafs 8. Order i. Odlandria Monogynia, 

'y^E Empalement is very fmall, above, and permanent. 
^ The Corolla is of one petal, bell-fhaped, and fcur-cleft: 

the divifions turning back. 
The Filaments are eight, fimple. Thp Anther(B two-horned, 

furniilied on the hack with two fpreading awns, and gaping 

at the tops. 

The 



( 157 ) 



The Gemen is beneath. The Style fimple, longer than the 

ftamina. ThQ Stigma oht\x[q, ^ ; - rri " . . 

The Seed'VejJel a berry, globofe, iimbilicated and;fQjur^cell'dV^ 
The ^^e^rfoiitary and fmall.' " ' ^-^^ ■■ "-^ 

Obf, The number of ftamina are ten, in many of the fpecies. 

Th^ Species, with us, are, 

* With annual deciduous leaves. 

1. VAccinium arboreum. Winter, or Tree Whoi*-^ 

th'Berry. 

■ ■ . -'^ 

This grows naturally in Carolina ; rifing to the 

height of ten or fifteen feet, with a pretty ftrong 

ftem, dividing towards the top into many branches. 

The fruit is fmall, ripening late in autumij. 

2. Vaccinium album. Pennfylvania'n. White Whor- 

. tie-berry. - . j ".■ > 

This is a fmall fhrub, rifing to the height of about 
two feet. The leaves are entire, egg-fhaped and 
downy underneath. The flowers are produced at 
the ends of the branches, ftanding two or three to- 
gether upon very (hort, naked footftalks. The fruit 
is fmall and whitifli. r 

3. Vaccinium corymbofum. Clujier-Jlowered ^^^^ 

ciniwn. ' ' 

This grows naturally in fwampy or moift places, 
rifing to the height of five or fix feet. The leaves 
are entire, oblong, oval, and fomewhat downy un- 
derneath. The flowers are produced in clufters or 
raiher one rowed, fliort, roundifh bunches; fet pret- 
ty clofe on the fmall branches. The fruit is of a 
dark purphfli colour when ripe, and of an agreeable 
ficid tafte. 

There 



( 158 ) 

Thefc are fome varieties, I think^ of this grow* 
ing upon higher ground, and of iHuch fmaller growth; 
the leaves of foitie of ^hich arc moft flightly and 
fliarply ferrated. 

4. Vaccinium frondofbm. Leafy Vacciniuniy er In- 

dian Goofeherry. 

This grows naturally upon Whortle-berry ground; 
rifing to the height of three or four feet, generally 
with a leaning, crooked, branching ftem. The 
leaves are entire and of an oval lance fhape. The 
flowers Sr6 produced in frondofe racemi or bunches, 
fet v^ith fmall oblong leaves^ at the bofom of which 
the flowers come dul, updn^prmy long, finiplc, 
flender footftalks; they are foitiewhat bell-fhaped, 
the antherae are very long, two horned : the horns 
two cleft. The fruit or berries ^it oval, aiid of the 
fize of a fmall Goofeberry ; reddifli coloured, foft, 
fucculent^ and.of a difagreeable tafte. 

5. Vaccinium liguftrinum. Privet-kaved Whortle- 

berry. 

This irifes f o the height of about ot three' feet, 
dividing into fmall branches. The leavefs are fmaill 
and oblong. The flowers are produced in fliort ra- 
cemi, or buftcfies, which come but altetnately, and 
thick upon the branches ; and are naked, or without 
floral leaves. The berrieS ate round, black and of 
an agreeable taft:e4 « 

6. VACcmitk^ftaittiheum. Loii^Jeaved Vaccinium. 

This is atfo of fmall growth. The leaves are ob- 
long and very entire. The flowers come out at the 
bofom of the leaves, upon folitary, flender footftalks, 

each 



( - 59 ) 

each fupporting one flower, wWch is of a fpreading 
bell-fhape and five cleft at the border. 

* * With evergreen leaves. 

7. Vaccinium hifpidulunv Marjh Vaccinium^ or 

Cranberry. 

This grows naturally in molTy fwamps, with flen- 
der, creeping ftalks, covered with briftly fcalcs. 
The leaves are oval, or fomewhat oblong and fhin- 
ing. The fruit or berries are large and reddifti co- 
loured; and of a bitterifh acid tafte. 

8. Vaccinium pennfylvanicum. Myrtle leaved Vac- 

ciniumj or Cranberry. 

The leaves of this are oval and fharp pointed. 
The flowers are white and nodding, produced from 
the bofom of the leaves. The berries are red and 
fmall, 

V I R B U R N U M. 

PLIANT MEALLY, or WAY-FARING-TREE, 
Clafs 5. Order 3. Pentandria Trigynia. 

n^HE Empalement is four toothed, above, very fmall and per- 
^ manent. 

The Corolla is of one petal, belMTiaped, half five-cleft: the 
divifions obtufe and rcflexed. 

The Filaments are five, awl-iliaped and the length of the corol- 
la. The Antherce roundifii. 

The Gctmen beneath, roundift. The Style none, but in its 
place a top-fliaped Gland, The Stipnas three. 

The Seed'vejfel, a fomewhat oval, comprelfed berry, of one 
cell. 

ThQ Seed oije, hard, and of the fame form. 



( i6o ) 



The Species, with us^ are^ 

I. Viburnum acerifolium. Maple-leaved Viburnum. 

This rifes generally to tlie height of four or five 
feet, with an ere£l, flender ftem, fending oiF a few 
oppofite branches. The leaves are fomewhat three 
lobed, toothed, or pretty largely fawed on their 
edges; a little hairy underneath, and joined to round 
footftalks, placed oppofite. The flowers terminate 
the ftalks and branches in cyivae (about feven parted) 
or kind of umbels ; they are white and are fucceed- 
ed by fomewhat oval, comprefled, black berries 
when ripe. 

1. Viburnum dentatum. Tcothcd-leaved Viburnum^ 
or Arrow Wood, 

This grows naturally in moift places, rifing up 
with feveral ftraight ftems, to the height of ten or 
twelve feet, fending olF feveral flender, oppofite 
branches. The leaves are roundifli or oval, pointed, 
and toothed on their edges, much veined and placed 
oppofite, upon round, downy footftalks. The flow- 
ers are produced at the tops of the ftalks and branch- 
es, in cynia or kind of umbels, about feven parted, 
in manner of thofe of the Elder but much fmaller ; 
they are white and are fucceeded by dark bluifli co- 
loured, oblong berries. The young flioots of this 
tree are generally ufed by the natives for arrows; 
whence it is known by the name of Arrow-wood. 

3. Viburnum prunifolium. Black Haw. 

This 1 take to be our common, fmall black Haw^ 
whicb. rifes with a ftifF ftem to the height of about 
ten or fifteen feet, dividing into many branches, 

which 



( i6i ) 

which are generally fet pretty thick with fhort, ftrong-, 
horizontal fpurs or fliprt branches, (landing oppofitc* 
The bark of the trunk or ftcni is dark and rough, 
but of the young branches fniooth. The leaves arc 
of an oblong oval, finooth, finely and llightly fer- 
rated, and placed oppofite upon channelled foot- 
ftalks. The flowers terminate the branches in four 
parted cy?na\ they are white and make a pretty 
good appearance. The berries are oblong, oval, 
compreffed and black when ripe, 

4- Viburnum nudum. Tinas Icav&cl^ or S%vamp 
Viburnum. 

This grows naturally in moid or fwampy places, 
rifing to the height of ten or twelve feet. The bark is 
fmooth and of the young flioots purplifli. The leaves 
are oval, lance-fhaped, of a thick confiftence and 
lucid green colour: often llightly ferrated, and ftand* 
ing oppofite. The flowers are produced in manner 
of the other kinds and are fucceeded by berries of 
nearly the fame fize and fliape, changing black when 
ripe. 

5. Viburnum Lentago. Ca?iadian Viburnum. 

This rifes to the height of about ten or twelve feet, 
covered with a brown bark, and divided into many 
branches, which, when young, are covered with a 
fmooth purpliflu bark. The leaves are fmooth, oval, 
flightly fawed on their edges, and fland generally 
oppofite upon Ihort flender motftalks. The flowers 
are produced in manner of tlie other kinds and are 
fucceeded by berries of the fame fliape, and black 
when ripe. 



X 



6. VlBUR- 



( i62 ) 



6. Viburnum alnifolium. Alder-leaved Viburnum. 

This grows naturally in Carolina and other parts 
of America; rifing with a flirubby ftalk to the height 
of eight or ten feet, covered with a fmooth purplifh 
bark, and divided into feveral branches. The leaves 
are heart-fhaped, oval, fliarp-pointed, deeply fawed 
on their edges, ftrongly veined, and placed oppofite 
upon long flender footftalks. The flowers are col- 
leded in large cymes or umbels at the ends of the 
branches, thofe ranged on the border are male, but 
the center is filled with hermaphrodite flowers, which 
are fiicceeded by pretty large, oval berries, red co- 
loured when ripe. 

7. Viburnum triloba. Mountain Viburnum. 

This grows naturally upon montains in the interior 
parts of Pennfylvania; rifing with flender fl:ems to 
the height of eight or ten feet. The leaves are fome- 
what like thofe of the Guelder Rofe or Snow-ball 
tree ; they are narrows at the bafc, but fpreading and 
divided into three fliarp pointed lobes, the middle 
one largefl, longefl:, and fometimes fliglitly tooth- 
eJ. The flowers are produced in form of the others, 
and are fucceeded by berries of the fame fliapc, of 
a pretty large fize and red colour when ripe. 

V I S C U M. 

M I S S E L T O E. 
Cia/s 22. Order 4. Dioecia Tetrandria. 

^'T^HE Male Flowers have thQh Empalements, five-parted; the 

leaves oval and equal. 
They have no petals. 

The Filaments or rather Antherce are four, oblong and pointed, 
joined to the leaves of the calyx. 

The 



( ) 



*The Female have Empalements, four leaved: the leaves oval, 
fmall, fitting clofe, deciduous and placed upon the germen. 
They have no petals. 

The Germen are ohlong, three-fidcd, their margins crowned, 
obfolcte, four-cleft, and beneath. The St'jles none. The 
Stigmas obtufc. 

The Seed-vejjels berries, which are globofc, fmooth, and o(- 
of one cell. 

^{^(iSeeds finglc, fomewhat heart- fliaped, compreffcd and flelTiy. 
The Species, with us^ arc^ 

I. ViscuM rubrum. Red berried Mi/felloe. 

This grows upon the branches of trees and is not 
found growing in the earth as other plants. It rifcs 
with flender woody ftalks, fcveral inches in height, 
fpreading and forming a tuft or bufli. The leaves 
are lance-ftiaped and obtufe. The flowers are pro- 
duccd in fpikes from the fides of the (talks, and thofc 
of the female are fucceeded by roundifh red berries, 
containing each one heart-lhaped, compreffcd feed, 
furroundcd by a tough vifcid fubftance. 

2, ViscuM purpureum. Purple-berried Miffehoe. 

This alfo rifes up from the branches of trees like 
the other. The leaves are inverfe-egg-fliaped, or 
oval and narrowed towards the bafe. The flowers 
come out in racemi or bunches from the fides of the 
ftalks; the female of which are fucceeded by berries 
of a purple colour when ripe. 

There is a variety of this with yellow leaves, refem- 
bling thofe of the box; the berries are alfo produced 
in bunches and are of a fnovvy white when ripe. 

Miffeltoe is moft frequently found growing upon 
the Nyffa Sylvatica or Sour Gum, in the middle 
States, but to the fouthward upon oaks. It is pro- 
pagated by birds feeding upon the berries, the feeds 

of 



( i64 ) 



of which, fometimes by their glutinofity adhere to 
the outfide of their beaks, and are thus tranfported 
to neighbouring trees, and being wiped off upon 
their branches, ftick faft, and germinate, producing 
new plants. From the berries of Miffeltoe, Birdlime 
was formerly made; but for this purpofe thofe of the 
common Holly are faid to be better. This plant hath 
been much recom.mended for the cure of Epilepfies. 

V I T I S. 

The V I N E. 
Clafs 5. Order j. Pentandria Monogynia. 

TTHE EmpalemeHt is five toothed and very fmall. 
The Petals are five, rude, fmall, and falling off. 

The Filaments are five, av/l-fhapcd, a little fpreading, and fall- 
ing oiF. The Antherce are fimple. 

The Germen ovate, i he Style none. The Stigma obtufe-head- 
ed. 

The Seed-vejjel a berry, roundifli, large, and of one cell. 
The Seeds are five, hard, end-bitten at one end, and contra^- 
cd at the other. 

The Species, with us, are, 

I. ViTis arborea. Carolinian Vine, or Pepper- 
Tree. 

This grows naturally in Carolina, rifmg with flen- 
der, ligneous, climbing ftalks, and faftening them- 
felves by tendrils to any neighbouring fupport. The 
leaves are branching and winged, compolcd general- 
ly of two fide branches of five leaves each, two of 
three leaves, and terminating with three; which are 
fmall and fomewhat toothed. The flowers are pro- 
duced in loofe clufters from the wings of the ftalks; 

they 



( i65 ) 



they are fmall and white, and are fucceedcd by fmill 
berries of a purplilh colour when ripe. 

2. ViTis vinifera americana.. American Grape 
Vine. 

There are many varieties of this, which generally 
rife up with ftrong fteins, climbing by tendrils or 
clafpers upon neighbouring trees for fupport, often 
to the height of thirty or forty feet, and of two, 
three or four inches in diameter ; covered with a 
dark, rough, loofe bark. The leaves are generally 
heart-fhaped and fomewhat three lobed ; fawed on 
their edges, and downy or hairy underneath. The 
grapes arc produced in bunches, in form of the Eu- 
ropean kinds, generally between the fize of a Cur- 
rant and Goofeberry : darkifh coloured, or with a 
light bluifh caft, and for the moft part of an acid 
agreeable tafte. 

3. ViTis vulpina. Fox-Grape Vine. 

This in manner of growth hath much the appear- 
ance of the other kinds. The leaves are generally 
larger, and fmooth, but whitifli underneath. The 
fruit or grapes are about the fize of a common cher- 
ry and have a ftrong fcent, a little approaching to 
that of a Fox, whence the name of Fox-grape. 
There are alfo varieties of this, fome with whitifli 
or reddifli fruit which is generally moft efteemed, 
and others with black, of which are our largeft 
grapes. 

4. ViTis Labrufca. Wild American Vine. 

The ftems of this have the appearance of our 
other kinds. The leaves are generally lefs and of a 

thinner 



{ i66 ) 



tninner texture. The berries or grapes are produ- 
ced in loofe bunches; they are fmall, and are of 
feveral kinds, fome reddifii, others of a fliining 
black, and fome of a bluifli colour; all of an acerb 
difagreeable tafte. 

5. ViTis laciniofa. Canadian P arjley --leaved 
V ine. 

The (talks and branches of this refcmble the 
others. The leaves are cut into many flender feg- 
ments, fomewhat in manner of a Parflcy-leaf. The 
grapes are round and white, and are produced in 
loofe bunches; they are late ripe and not very well 
flavoured. 

XANTHOXYLUM. 

The TOOTH-ACH TREE. 
Clafs 22. Order 5. Dioecia Pentandria. 

^T^HE Male Flowers have Empalements four-parted,- the 

leaves oval, erecl and coloured. 
T"^y have no Petals. 

The Filamciits in each arc generally five, awl-fliaped, eredl and 
longer than the calyx. The Antliera: are twin, roLindilli and 
furrowed. 

* The Female have Empalemems as the male. 
They have no Petals. 

The Germen in each are generally five, often Icfs, with lliort 
footflalks, oval and ending in as many awi-lhaped Sf^les. 
The Stigmas are obtufe. 

The Seed'VejJcls are Capjules, of the fame number with the ger- 
men, oblong, of one cell and two valves. 

The Seeds are fingle, roundifli and fmooth. 



( ) 



The Species, with us, 

Xanthqxylum fraxinifolium, AJh-leaved Tooth" 
ach Tree. 

This grows naturally in Pennfylvania and Mary- 
land; rifing with a pretty ftrong ftem to the height 
of ten or twelve feet ; and dividing in many branch- 
es, which are covered with a purplifh bark, and 
armed at each bud with two ftrong, {harp fpines. 
The leaves are compofed of four or five pair of lobes, 
terminated by an odd one; which are entire and of 
an oblong egg-fhape, placed oppofite and fitting 
clofeto the common footftalk, which is alfo fet with 
a few fpines underneath. The flowers are produced 
along the branches, upon fhort rollcded footftalks; 
and thofe of the female are each fucceeded, for the 
moft part, with five diftind, oval capfules, joined 
by (hort footftalks to the common receptacle, and 
fpreading above ; each containing one roundifh, 
fmooth feed. 

There is faid to be another Species, or perhaps 
Variety, of this in South Carolina, differing in hav- 
ing the lobes of their leaves lanee-ftiaped, fawed on 
their edges and having footftalks. The bark and 
capfules are of a hot acrid tafte, and are ufed for 
cafing the tooth-ach, from whence it obtained the 
name of Tooth-ach Tree : a tinfture of them are 
alfo much commended for the cure of the Kheuma- 
tifm. 



XANTHORHIZA. 

SHRUB YELLOW ROOT. 
Clafs 5. Order 6. Pentandria Polygynia. 

TpHE Empalemejit none. 

* The Corolla is of five petals, lance-fliaped, pointed and 
fpreading. The 



( i68 ) 



The NeUariim crowning the corolla, of five fmall leaves, 
fomewhat two-lobed : th^ lobes very fmall, roundifh, 
or rather runcinate, and inferted by flender claws in 
the common receptacle, alternating with the petals. 
The Filaments live, iTiort and thread-form. The Anthem round- 
ilTi. 

The Germen feveral, moft frequently from feven to eleven, 

fmall and ending in as many awMliapcd, lliort, incurved 

Styles. The Stigmas acute. 
The Seed'VejJeU as many Capfules; which are fmall, fomewhat 

oval, comprefTed, oblique pointed, of one cell and two 

valves, joined at their bafc to the common receptacle, and 

(preading above. 
The Seeds are fingle in each cell, fmall, fomewhat ovate and 

lightly compreflfed 
OhJ, The petals are fometimes fix in number. The number 

of Stamina are alfo fometimes increafed. 

The Species but one^ viz. 

Xantiiorhiza fimplicifTima. Shtirb Yellow 
Root. 

This Is a fmall flirub, growing naturally in Caro- 
lina. The roots are flender and cylindrical, but 
fending off fide fhoots by which it fpreads much; 
the wood of which, together with that of the ftems, 
are of a bright yellow colour. The ftems are flender^ 
rifing to the height of two feet or more, generally 
fimple, or without branches, and covered with a 
iightifh brown bark. The leaves are compound, 
confiding of two pair of oppofite lobes, terminated 
by an odd one; the lobes are much and deeply cut 
or cleft on their edges, (fomewhat in form of Gar- 
den Lovage) and joined to very long, common foot- 
ftalks, coming out from the tops of the (tems. The 
flowers arc produced at the top of the former year's 
growth, in a compound or panicled racemus) having 
their partial footftalks generally three flowered j they 

are 



( ) 

are fmaU and purplilh coloured, and are fucceeded 
by little heads of fmall, compreffed capfules, each 
enclofing one fmall feed. The flowers on the par- 
tial or fmall footftalks, are not produced at once, 
thofe that are middle-moft or terminal come out 
firft and are hermaphrodite, and generally barren ; 
thofe on the fides come out later, but one of which 
is generally fruitful; from whence, I had fuppofed, 
fome of the flowers were female, and to the contrary 
of which I am not yet fully corivinced. 

This ftirub, from the yellownefs of its roots and 
ftems, it is highly probable, might be employed to 
good purpofe in dying cloaths, &c. It has hitherto 
been undefcribed by Botanical writers, though nam- 
ed in fome- late Catalogues in honour of M. Marbois; 
but having impofed the former name, before I had 
heard of this, have chofe to retain it as being ex- 
preflive of its qualities and appearance. 



t 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



BOXES of SEEDS, and growing PLANTS, 
of the Forest Trees, Flowering 
Shrubs, See. of the American United States; 
are made vip in the befl manner and at a rea- 
fonable rate by the Author. All Orders in 
this line, diredled for Humphry Mar/hall^ of 
Chefter County, Pennfylvania ; to the Care of 
Dr. Thomas Parke, in Philadelphia, will 
be carefully and pundlually attended to. 



^ ■^■■^■■■■■iWiiii 

QxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxQ 



INDEX of Latin Generic Names. 



A CER. 
^fculus. 


Franklinia. 


Potentilla. 


Fraxinus. 


Prinos. 


Amorpha. 


Gaultheria. 


Prunus. 


Andromeda. 


Gleditfia. 


Prunus-Cerafus, 


Annona. 


Glycine. 


Prunus-Lauro-Cera- 


Aralia. 


Guilandina. 


fus. 


Arbutus. 


Halefia. 


Ptelea. 


Ariftolochia. 


Hamamelis. 


Pyrola. 


Afcyrum. 


Hedera. 


Pyrus-Malus. 


Azalea. 


Hippophac. 


Ouercus. 


Baccharis. 


Hydrangea. 


Rhododendrum. 


Berberris. 


Hypericum. 


Uhus. 


Betula. 


Ilex. 


Rhus-Toxicodendroh 


Betula-Alnus. 


Itea. 


Ribes. 


Bignonia. 


Juglans. 


Robinia. 


Callicarpa. 


Juniperus. 


Rofa. 


Calycanthus. 


Kalmia. 


Rubus. 


Carpinus. 


Laurus. 


Salix. 


Cafline. 


Ledum. 


Sambucus. 


Ceanothus. 


Liquidambar. 


Smilax. 


Celaftrus. 


Liriodendrum. 


Sorbus. 


Celtis. 


Lonicera. 


Spirasa. 


Cephalanthus. 


Magnolia. 


Staphylapa. 


Cercis. 


Menifpermum. 


Stewartia. 


Chionanthus. 


Mefpilus. 


Styrax. 


Clethra. 


Mitchella. 


Taxus. 


Cornus. 


Morus. 


Thuya. 


Corylus. 


Myrica. 


Tilia. 


Cupreffus. 


NylTa. 


Tillandfia. 


DIofpyros. 


Olea. 


Ulmus. 


Dirca. 


Philadelphus. 


Vaccinium. 


Epigaea. 


Pinus. 


Viburnum. 


Jluonymus. 


Pinus-Abies. 


Vifcum. 


Fagus. 


Pinus-Larix. 


Vitis. 


Fagus-Caftanea. 


Platanus. 


Xanthoxylum. 


Fothergilla. 


Populus, 


Xanthorhiza. 



INDEX 



( ) 



INDEX of English Names. 



Vage. 

A CACIA, falfe, 133 
Acacia, three-thorned, 53 

Alder, 19 

Allfpice, Carolinian, 23 

Angelica Tree, lo 

Apple, Cuftard, 9 

Arbor Vit2e, 151 

Arbutus, Trailing, 42 

Arrow Wood, 160 

Afh, 50 

Afh, Mountain, 144 

Alh, Poifon, 130 

Afp, or Afpen Tree, 107 

Azarole, 88 

B 

Balm of Gilead Fir, J 02 

Balfam Tree, 107 

Barberry, 17 

Bay, 72 

Bay, Dwarf Rofe, 126 

Bay, Sweet flowering, 83 

Bean Tree, Kidney, 54 

Bear-berries, 11 

Beech, 45 

Bell Tree, Silver, 57 

Benjamin Tree, 73 

Berry, Winter, 109 

Bilberry, i5<^ 

Bindweed, Rough, 142 

Birch, 18 

Bird Cherry, 112 

Birthwort, 12 

Black-berry. i37 

Bladder-Nut, i47 

Bonduc, 56 

Briar, 136 

Briar, Green, 142 





Buck- Thorn, Sea, 


60 


Burning bufh, 


44 


Button Tree, or Wood, 


30 


Button Wood, Large 


105 


p 




Candleberries, 


94 


Catalpa, 


21 


Cedar, Red 


70 


Cedar, White 


39 


Cherry Wild, or Bird, 


112 


Cherry, Dwarf, 


81 


Chefnut, 


46 


Chefnut, Horfe 


4 


Chinquepin, 


47 


Cinquefoil, 


X08 


Ciftus, Marfh 


75 


Coffee, Kentucky, 


S6 


Cornel Tree, 


34 


Cotton Tree, Carolinian 


106 


Crab 1 ree. 


T T Q 
I I 


Cranberries, 


159 


Creeper, Virginian 


59 


Lrols Vine, 


21 


Cucumber Tree, 




Currants, 


TOT 


Cuftard Apple, 


9 


Cyprefs, 


38 


D 




Date Plumb, 


40 


Dewberry Bufh, 


137 


Dogberry, 


34 


Dog Wood, 


35 


E 




Elder, 


140 



Elm, 

Euonymus, Ciiming, 



155 

28 
Fern, 



( 173 ) 



F 



Fern, Sweet, 
•Fir, 

Fox Grape, 
Fringe Tree, 



Page. 

77 

102 

165 
32 



Gale, Bog, 95 
Gale, Spleenwort-leaved, 77 

Gilcad, Balm of 102 

Goofcbcrry, 13^ 

Goofeberry, Indian 158 

Grape, 165 

Groiindfel Tree, 16 

Gum, Sour 97 

Gum, Sweet 76 



H 




Hawthorn, or Haw, 


87 


Haw, Black 


160 


Hazel, 


36 


Hazel, Witch 


58 


Hemlock Spruce, 


103 


Hep-Tree, 


135 


Hickery, 


68 


Holly, 


63 


Honey Locuft, 


53 


Honcy-fuckle, 


79 


Honey-fuckle, Upright 


14 


Horn-beam, 


24 


Horfe Chefnut, 


4 


I 





Jafmine, Yellow, 22 

Jerfey Tea, 27 

Indian Arrow Wood, 160 

Indian Pipe-Shank, 147 

Ink-Berry, 109 

Indigo, Baftard 5 

Johnfonia, 22 

Iron Woo^l, Carolinian 9 

Judas-Tref, 31 

Ivy, I 59 



K 



Kidney Bean Tree, 



Page, 
54 



L 




Laurel, American 


7X 


Laurel, Mountain 


127 


Leather Wood 


41 


Lime, or Linden Tree, 


153 


Lime, Ogeche, 
Locuft Tree, 


97 


133 


Locuft Tree, Honey 


53 



M 

Maple, 

Meally Tree, Pliant 
Medlar, 
Mideltoe, 
Mock Orange, 
Moon- feed, 
Mofs- berries. 
Mountain Tea, 
Mulberry Tree, 
Myrtle, Candlebcrry, 



N 



Nettle Tree, 
Nickar Tree, 
Nine-Bark, 
Nut, Bladder 
Nut, Hazel 

Oak, 

Oak, Poifon 
Olive, 

Orange, Mock 



Papaw-Tree, 
Pai agua Tea, 



1 

159 
87 

r62 
99 
85 

159 
52 
93 
94 



29 
56 
146 
i47 
36 



lis 
131 

98 
99 



9 
16 
Pavia, 



( 174 ) 



Page, 



Pavia, 5 

Pepper-Tree, 164 

Perfimmon Tree,. 40 

Pig- nut, 68 

Pine Tree, 100 

Pipe-fhank, Indian 147 

Plane Tree, 104 

Pliant Meally Tree, 159 

Plowman's Spikenard, 16 

Plumb Tree, no 

Plumb, Indian Date 40 

Poifon Afh, 130 

Poifon Sumach, 130 

Poifon Oak, 131 

Poifon Vine, 131 

Poplar, 105 
Poplar, (commonly Jo called) 78 

Quickbeam, 144. 
R 

Rafpberry, 156 

Red- bud, 31 

Red-buds, 8 

Red-Rod, 36 

Red-Root, 27 i 

Rofe, 135 

Rofe Bay, Dwarf 126 

Rofemary, Wild 75 

s 

Saint John's-Wort, 62 

Saint Peter's- Wort, 13 

Saffafras, 74 

Saffafras, Swamp 83 

Service Tree, I44 

Service Tree, Wild 38-90 

Snow-drop Tree, 3^ 

Sorrel-Tree, 7 

Sour Gum, 97 

Spice Wood, 73 

Spindle Tree, 43 



Fag'' 



StafF Tree, 28 

Stag's-horn-Tree, 129 

Storax Tree, 149 

Storax, Liquid 77 

Sugar Tree. 4 

Sumach, 127 

Sweet Gum, 76 

T 

Tacamahac Tree, 167 

Tea, New-Jerfey 27 

Tea, Mountain, 52 

Tea, South Sea 26 

Thorn, Black 160 

Thorn, White 88 

Tooth-ach Tree, 166 

Trefoil, Shrub 114 

Tree of Life, 151 

Trumpet flower, 20 

Tulip Tree, 78 
Tulip Tree, Laurel-leaved 82 

Tupelo Tree, 95 

u 

Vmbrella-Tree, 84 
V 

Vine, 164 
Vine, Climing five-leaved 59 

Vine, Poifon 13* 

W 

Walnut, 6$ 

Way-faring Tree, i59 

Whortle Berry, 156 

Willow Tree, I39 

Winter Green, nS 

Witch Hazel, 58 

Y 

Yellow Root, 167 
Yew, 

Yapon, 26